Palinsesto (filologia)

Un palinsesto è una pagina manoscritta, rotolo di pergamena o libro, che è stata scritta, cancellata e scritta nuovamente. Il termine deriva dal greco πάλιν + ψηστός (pálin psestòs, lett. “raschiato di nuovo”). Gli antichi romani scrivevano su tavolette ricoperte di cera che potevano essere riutilizzate, e un uso passeggero del termine abbastanza ricercato “palinsesto”, da parte di Cicerone, sembra riferirsi a questa pratica.
Poiché le pergamene ricavate dalle pelli degli animali sono più durevoli della carta o del papiro, la gran parte dei palinsesti noti agli studiosi moderni sono composti da pergamene, che divennero sempre più popolari in Europa Occidentale dopo il VI secolo d.C. Invece, dove il papiro era di uso comune, il riutilizzo del supporto alla scrittura era meno frequente, in quanto il papiro era più economico e spendibile della costosa pergamena. Alcuni palinsesti in papiro esistono tuttora e i romani facevano riferimento all’uso di lavare i papiri, dato che la pianta da cui venivano ricavati non cresceva in Italia.
Con il passare del tempo i labili resti dello scritto precedente, che erano stati rimossi dalla pergamena usando latte e crusca d’avena, riaffioravano abbastanza da permettere agli studiosi di decifrare il testo (che chiamavano scriptio inferior, la “sottoscrittura”). Più tardi nel medioevo

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, la superficie della pergamena veniva grattata via con della polvere di pietra pomice, facendo scomparire irrimediabilmente il testo. Per questo i palinsesti più preziosi sono quelli che vennero sovrascritti all’inizio del medioevo.
Gli studiosi del XIX secolo, per leggere i palinsesti, usavano mezzi chimici che erano a volte altamente distruttivi, usando tintura di bile o in seguito idrosolfuro di ammonio. I metodi moderni, che impiegano gli ultravioletti e la fotografia, sono più sottili. La sovrapposizione di fotografie esposte con differenti spettri di luce, può aumentare il contrasto dell’inchiostro sbiadito su una pergamena, che è troppo indistinto per essere letto dall’occhio con una luce normale. L’innovativa digitalizzazione delle immagini è venuta in aiuto agli studiosi nel decifrare palinsesti illeggibili.
I manoscritti pagani sono spesso sopravvissuti solo come palinsesti. Gran parte dell’eredità culturale dell’antichità, che si ritiene comunemente essere stata preservata dalla Chiesa, venne trasmessa inavvertitamente, attraverso i palinsesti. La causa di questa distruzione era la scarsità del materiale. Non solo

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, infatti, testi pagani, ma anche testi cristiani non più attuali furono cancellati per fare spazio a versioni più “moderne”: si pensi alle vecchie traduzioni latine della Bibbia, note come “Vetus latina”, cancellate per essere sostituite dalla Vulgata, o al vecchio Sacramentario gelasiano sostituito da quello gregoriano. Nel caso dei manoscritti greci, tale era la consunzione dei vecchi codici a favore del supporto su cui erano scritti, che un decreto sinodale del 691 vietava la distruzione dei manoscritti delle Sacre Scritture o dei padri della Chiesa, ad eccezione dei volumi imperfetti o danneggiati. Il declino nel commercio della pergamena, grazie all’introduzione della carta, esacerbò questa scarsità, che veniva sopperita solo attraverso il ricorso a materiale già usato.
Considerazioni culturali, combinate a quelle economiche, portarono a motivare la creazione dei palinsesti. La domanda di nuovi testi poteva superare, in alcuni centri, la disponibilità di pergamene. Un’altra possibilità è che i testi pagani fossero apparsi semplicemente irrilevanti. I testi più suscettibili ad essere sovrascritti comprendevano documenti legali o liturgici obsoleti, talvolta di grande interesse per gli storici. Le prime traduzioni latine delle Scritture vennero rese obsolete dalla Vulgata di San Girolamo. I testi potevano essere scritti in lingue straniere o con grafie poco familiari che col tempo erano diventate illeggibili. I codici stessi potevano essere già danneggiati o incompleti. I testi eretici erano pericolosi da tenere: esistevano motivi religiosi o politici per distruggere testi visti come eresie, e riusare il supporto era uno spreco minore rispetto al bruciare semplicemente i libri.
L’ampia distruzione delle pagine dei primi secoli della nostra era avvenne nel periodo che seguì la caduta dell’Impero romano d’Occidente, ma i palinsesti vennero creati anche quando nuovi testi vennero richiesti durante il rinascimento carolingio. I più preziosi palinsesti latini si trovano nei codici che vennero rifatti da grandi fogli precedenti del VII-IX secolo. Si è fatto notare che nessuna opera completa si trova di solito nel testo originale dei palinsesti, ma che porzioni di molte opere sono state prese per creare un singolo volume. Un’eccezione è il palinsesto di Archimede (si veda sotto). Complessivamente, i primi amanuensi medioevali furono indiscriminati nel rifornirsi di materiale preso dai vecchi volumi che avevano sottomano.
Alcuni dei più famosi palinsesti sono:
Gore Vidal ha intitolato Palimpsest (Palinsesto) la sua autobiografia.
Altri progetti

Jay Noren

Jay Noren, M.D., is the former President of Wayne State University and former Provost of Khalifa University in Abu Dhabi.
Noren did his undergraduate studies at the University of Minnesota and then graduated from the University of Minnesota Medical School. He also received master’s degree in public health from Harvard University. Noren was the Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Fellow at the National Academy of Sciences and U.S. Congress, and a Churchill Fellow in the United Kingdom.
Noren was a Vice Chancellor for Health Affairs at Texas A&M University. He was then a Vice Chancellor at the University of Wisconsin. He was also the Provost and later the Dean at the University of Nebraska Medical Center.
Noren is married to Sheri Noren Everts, the Provost at the Illinois State University. The couple resides in Normal, IL.
On Tuesday, July 20

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In December 2015, Noren applied for the presidency of the University of North Dakota. He was one of six finalist applicants invited to the University in early 2016, though the position was ultimately given to Mark Kennedy.

Neptune Islands Conservation Park

Neptune Islands Conservation Park is a protected area occupying most of the Neptune Islands in South Australia about 55 km (34 mi) south-south east of Port Lincoln. It was established in 1967 principally to protect a New Zealand fur seal breeding colony. The conservation park was subsequently expanded to include the adjoining waters in order to control and manage berleying activities used to attract great white sharks. As of 2002, the conservation park is the only place in Australia where shark cage diving to view great white sharks is legally permitted.

The conservation park includes all the islands within the group with the exception of all or part of the southernmost island (known as Lighthouse Island) in the South Neptune Islands where land has been reserved for ongoing use by a lighthouse and the waters within 2 nautical miles (4 km) of the mean low water mark of both groups of islands. The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category Ia protected area.
The conservation park was proclaimed on 16 March 1967 mainly to conserve the New Zealand fur seal breeding colony on the southern island of the North Neptune Islands which is reported as being one of the largest in Australia. Other features that contributed to the declaration include the small breeding population of Australian sea lions on the North Neptune Islands, Australian sea lion haul out areas on the South Neptune Islands and the breeding/nesting populations of Cape Barren goose Karen Millen Outlet UK, white-bellied sea eagle, osprey and peregrine falcon.
The conservation park was subsequently extended to include the waters within 2 nautical miles (4 km) of the shoreline of both the North and South Neptune Islands via a declaration under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (SA), to regulate and manage great white shark berleying activities around both groups of islands

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1n 1990, most of Lighthouse Island was reportedly added to the conservation park after the conversion of the lighthouse to automatic operation with the exception of some land around the lighthouse and an associated helicopter landing site.
On 29 November 2012, the waters within 2 nautical miles (4 km) of the coastline of both the North and South Neptune Islands at median high water also became part of a protected area known as the Neptune Islands Group (Ron and Valerie Taylor) Marine Park. The marine park entity provides a level of regulation additional to that of the conservation park in respect to the use of the waters adjoining both groups of islands.
Since 2002, the conservation park is the only venue in Australia where the use of shark cage diving to view great white sharks is legally permitted. Access for shark cage diving is via three operators licensed by the Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources.
Fauna intended to be protected by the declaration of the conservation park in 1967.
New Zealand fur seal
Australian sea lion
Cape Barren goose
White-bellied sea eagle
Osprey
Peregrine falcon

Wilbur Dartnell

William Thomas Dartnell VC (6 April 1885 – 3 September 1915) (enlisted as Wilbur Taylor Dartnell) was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. Dartnell was born in Melbourne, Australia. After marrying Elizabeth Smyth, he moved to South Africa, where he was living at the outbreak of the First World War. He enlisted in the Royal Fusiliers and was shipped to British East Africa. On 3 September 1915, whilst his company were being evacuated, he stayed behind in an attempt to save the lives of the wounded.

William Dartnell was born on 6 April 1885 at Collingwood, Melbourne, to Henry Dartnell, an English-born fruiterer, and his Australian wife Rose Ann, née Hanley. He was brought up in Melbourne and after leaving school, he became an actor. At the age of 16 he served in the Second Boer War. He married Elizabeth Edith Smyth on 15 April 1907, at Queen Street, Melbourne. Soon after, they settled at Fitzroy.
At the age of 27, Dartnell settled in South Africa. When the First World War started, he volunteered for service and sailed for England. On 12 February 1915, using the name Wilbur Taylor Dartnell, he joined the 25th (Frontiersmen) Battalion, Royal Fusiliers. He was promoted to temporary Lieutenant on 25 July 1915. The regimental history notes of this battalion states that it “included men of various ages and with strange experience from all quarters of the globe”

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. Raised especially for use against German troops in British East Africa, it was the only British unit sent on active service during the war without preliminary training. The Fusiliers reached Mombasa on 4 May and went at once to their military post on the Uganda railway; their main task was to protect the railway from enemy raiding parties. In June, Dartnell retrieved the Imperial Ensign from the local headquarters at Bukoba, the German base for attacks on the Uganda frontier. The regiment were subsequently awarded battle honours for “Bukoba”.
Shortly after the victory at Bukoba, the battalion moved to Voi in preparation for an allied advance towards German East Africa. Two companies were dispatched by rail to Maktau, a small village in the lee of the Taita Hills. Thirty-five miles from Voi, it was the railhead of the military railway then under construction towards Taveta. On 3 September 1915, his mounted infantry patrol was ambushed.
On 3 September 1915, near Maktau, Kenya, during a mounted infantry engagement, the enemy were so close that it was impossible to get the more severely wounded away. Lieutenant Dartnell, who was himself being carried away wounded in the leg, seeing the situation, and knowing that the enemy’s black troops murdered the wounded, insisted on being left behind, in the hope of being able to save the lives of other wounded men. He gave his own life in a gallant attempt to save others.”
Dartnell and eight other European troops were originally buried at Maktau. After the war they were reburied in the Commonwealth War Grave Cemetery at Voi, 100 miles inland from the port of Mombasa on the East African coast. His headstone with the VC emblem lies to the right of the entrance to the Cemetery. His Victoria Cross is displayed at the Australian War Memorial.

Bis zum bitteren Ende (Album)

Besetzung
Studios
Bis zum bitteren Ende ist das erste Live-Album der Punkrockband Die Toten Hosen. Es wurde im Laufe des Jahres 1987, während verschiedenen Konzerten der Tour mit dem Titel Ein bunter Abend für eine schwarze Republik aufgenommen, von Jon Caffery produziert und Ende des Jahres 1987 über das Label Virgin Records veröffentlicht. Es erreichte Platz 23 der deutschen Albencharts und war bis Mitte 1990er Jahre das Album mit den zweithöchsten Verkaufszahlen einer deutschen Band.

Das Frontcover, in orange und schwarz gehalten, gestaltet von der Die Hosen Cover AG und LMP zeigt die Aufschrift Die Toten Hosen und den Titel des Albums vor einem Hintergrund von gelben lachenden Totenköpfen. Das Begleitheft enthält Zeitungsausschnitte, Konzertfotos und Liedtexte. Auf der Rückseite sind Kinderbilder der Bandmitglieder zu sehen. Der ersten Auflage der Vinylausgabe war eine Schablone des Bandlogos Knochenadler beigelegt.
Mit einem Konzert am 29. März 1987 in der Wartburg in Wiesbaden begann die Konzertreise unter dem Motto Ein bunter Abend für eine schwarze Republik unter der Leitung von Jäki Eldorado. Sie führte über Hamburg, Baden-Baden, Bonn, Köln, dem Bruchhausen-Festival in Bruchhausen-Vilsen nach Münster.
Am 14. und am 15. Juni 1987 gab die Band zwei Konzerte in München, welche zum Teil vom Bayerischen Rundfunk für die Sendung Live aus dem Alabama aufgenommen wurden. Sie spielten in Baindt, Bamberg, Bayreuth, Nürnberg, Frankfurt am Main, Höxter, Osnabrück, Haltern am See, beim Rock-im-Sportpark-Festival und dem Plattlin-Festival in Göttingen, in Mannheim und ein zweites Mal in Bonn.
Nach der Veranstaltung beim Roskilde Festival am 3. Juli 1987 in Dänemark brach sich Schlagzeuger Wolfgang Rohde ein Schlüsselbein an. Bis zum Ende der Tour vertrat ihn Jakob Keusen, der bereits 1985 vorübergehend für die Band gespielt hatte. Die Konzertreise führte weiter nach Haltern, Oberhausen, Wuppertal, Düsseldorf und Deggendorf. Am 5. September 1987 spielte die Band im Tempodrom in Berlin, am 19. September in Garching beim Friedensfestival und am 15. September beim Olof-Palme-Friedensfestival in Pilsen, wo die Band, nach einer ausgelassenen Feier zusammen mit den aus der DDR angereisten Fans, von der Polizei gezwungen wurde das Land sofort zu verlassen. Die Tournee endete mit einem Weihnachtskonzert am 23. Dezember 1987 im Tor 3 in Düsseldorf.
Während der Konzertreise bestritten die Gruppe Stunde X aus Düsseldorf und die Londoner Band Blubbery Hellbellies das Vorprogramm. Teilweise traten auch Die Goldenen Zitronen als Gäste mit auf die Bühne.
Aufgenommen wurden die Konzerte durch das Mobile Tonstudio Dieter Dierks, die Abmischung und das endgültige Mastering für das Album Bis zum bitteren Ende erfolgte von Jon Caffery im Studio Preußenton in Berlin.
Der Titel des Albums geht auf das gleichnamige Lied zurück, welches 1983 auf dem Debütalbum Opel-Gang erstmals veröffentlicht wurde. Eine a-cappella-Version des Liedes erschien auf dem Album und von dem Album Damenwahl aus dem Jahr 1986. Live spielt die Band dieses einfache Trinklied, zumeist im Zugabenteil nach dem Call and Response–Prinzip mit dem Publikum.
Die Anordnung der Musiktitel auf dem Album orientiert sich nach der Reihenfolge der Setliste, wie sie auf den meisten Konzerten der Tour gespielt wurde. Von der Ansage zu Beginn des Albums, gesprochen von Tourleiter Jäki Eldorado: „Liebe Punkrocker, das Warten hat sich gelohnt. Seid ihr alle gut drauf? Mögt ihr alle Limonade? Ist Purple Schulz das Größte für euch? Jungs, ihr seid auf dem komplett falschen Konzert. Das ist Punkrock. Das sind Die Toten Hosen aus Düsseldorf!“ geht es nahtlos über in Rock ’n’ Roll, einer Interpretation des Songs von Gary Glitter.
Mit Police on my Back, im Original von The Equals ist eine weitere englischsprachige Coverversion auf dem Album vorhanden. Für Disco in Moskau wurde der Text des Songs von The Vibrators von Campino in die deutsche Sprache übertragen. Armee der Verlierer, Liebeslied und waren zuvor als B-Seiten veröffentlicht worden. Der Musiktitel Jürgen Englers Party von der Debütsingle Wir sind bereit wurde in Die Rosen geben ’ne Party geändert, wobei mit den Gastgebern das Pseudonym Die Roten Rosen gemeint ist, unter dem Die Toten Hosen das Album Never Mind The Hosen – Here’s Die Roten Rosen im Jahr 1987 veröffentlicht hatten. Happy Metal Part I, Freitag der 13., Happy Metal Part ‘II, Betrunken im Dienst und Happy Metal Part III sind als ein Medley zusammengefasst.
Viele Lieder werden von Campino angesagt, so zum Beispiel das Wort zum Sonntag: „Es wird Zeit, dass Samstags abends die ganzen Priester und Pfarrer endlich mal abhauen und ein paar vernünftige Leute das Wort zum Sonntag sprechen lassen: Lemmy von Motörhead zum Beispiel oder natürlich Johnny Thunders. Das ist unsers!“ oder den Titel Schwarzwaldklinik, der einen spöttischen Seitenhieb auf Dieter Bohlen und Thomas Anders von Modern Talking enthält:„Das Nächste ist von einem Krankenhaus, wo die Patienten die weißen Kittel anhaben, und man nennt es die Schwarzwaldklinik.“
Ende des Jahres 2007 wurde unter anderem das Album Bis zum bitteren Ende neu aufgelegt, alle Stücke remastert und ein komplett neues Booklet entworfen. Die CD enthält zusätzlich die Aufnahmen eines Konzerts, das die Band 1992 in Edinburgh gab und das live im Radio übertragen wurde.
Bis zum bitteren Ende betrat am 4 bogner taschen. Januar 1988 die deutschen Charts, verweilte dort 20 Wochen und erreichte als Höchstdotierung Platz 23. Die österreichische Hitparade betrat es am 15. Februar 1988, blieb 4 Wochen dort und erreichte als höchstes Platz 17. Das Album wurde für mehr als 500.000 Exemplare mit einer Platinschallplatte in Deutschland ausgezeichnet.
Hollow Skai betrachtet in seinem Buch über Die Toten Hosen aus dem Jahre 2007 das Album als das „wohl lebendigste Livealbum einer deutschen Band“, es lebe „vor allem von der guten Atmosphäre“ und präsentiere „Campino erstmals als charismatischen Entertainer.“ Der Rezensent von der Rheinischen Post ist der Meinung, dass das Album zeige, „was die frühen Hosen ausmacht“. Während des „Punkrock-Feuerwerks“ erlebe man „eine Band, die alles gibt“. „Authentischer“ ginge es nicht.
Opel-Gang (1983) | Unter falscher Flagge (1984) | Damenwahl (1986) | Never Mind The Hosen – Here’s Die Roten Rosen (1987) | Bis zum bitteren Ende (1987) | Ein kleines bisschen Horrorschau (1988) | Auf dem Kreuzzug ins Glück (1990) | Learning English Lesson One (1991) | Kauf mich! (1993) | Reich & sexy (1993) | Love, Peace & Money (1994) | Opium fürs Volk (1996) | Im Auftrag des Herrn (1996) | Wir warten auf’s Christkind (1998) | Crash-Landing (1999) | Unsterblich (1999) | Auswärtsspiel (2002) | Reich & sexy II (2002) | Zurück zum Glück (2004) | Nur zu Besuch (2005) | In aller Stille (2008) | Machmalauter Live (2009) | Ballast der Republik (2012) | Der Krach der Republik (2013) | Entartete Musik – Willkommen in Deutschland (2015) (siehe auch: Die Toten Hosen/Diskografie und Liste der Musikstücke, die von der Band Die Toten Hosen gecovert oder bearbeitet wurden)

Charles Degotte

modifier
Charles Degotte, né le 4 juillet 1933 à Verviers (Belgique) et mort (suicidé) le 20 avril 1993 à Bruxelles, est un dessinateur et un scénariste belge de bandes dessinées.

Au début des années 1960, Charles Degotte est engagé par Charles Dupuis au sein de l’équipe qui réalise la maquette de l’hebdomadaire Spirou. Cela lui permet de rencontrer Franquin, Peyo, Roba et Tillieux.
En 1961, profitant de l’arrivée des Mini-Récits dans Spirou, Charles Degotte crée le personnage du Flagada. Le succès de cette série, va permettre à ce personnage de vivre de nombreux gags de une à quelques planches et deux histoires plus longues: Emilius le terrible (44 planches) et Le martin bêcheur (42 planches).
En 1984, Degotte lance la série de bande dessinée Les Motards qu’il continuera jusqu’à son décès et dont 10 albums sont parus aux éditions Dupuis.
De 1986 à 1987, sur le thème de la série Les Motards, Degotte illustre la chronique moto Essai motard, sur des textes de Geo Salmon

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À la suite d’une longue dépression, Charles Degotte se suicide le 20 avril 1993 à Bruxelles.
Dans Spirou no 3852 (8 février 2012), p. 43, Tome et Janry lui rendent hommage avec une planche intitulée L’illustre inconnu où son suicide est mentionné

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Marzocco

The Marzocco is the heraldic lion that is a symbol of Florence, and was apparently the first piece of public secular sculpture commissioned by the Republic of Florence, in the late 14th century. It stood at the heart of the city in the Piazza della Signoria at the end of the platform attached to the Palazzo Vecchio called the ringhiera, from which speakers traditionally harangued the crowd. This is now lost, having weathered with time to an unrecognizable mass of stone.
The best known rendition is by Donatello, made in 1418–20. Donatello’s original replaced the original in the piazza in 1812, but since 1885 has been indoors in the Bargello, replaced by a copy in bronze that is still exposed to weather in the Piazza della Signoria.

The original that had stood since (perhaps) 1377, and is now lost, appears to have been similar to Donatello’s in design, though it was fully gilded and may have crouched over a submissive wolf representing Florence’s great rival Siena. It can be seen in the background of several paintings and prints, though by the time it was replaced it was so worn that (being only medieval, not classical) it was not considered worth keeping, and disappeared. About 1460 it was given a richly sculptural socle with double baluster-like motifs at the corners. The ringhiera, once a platform from which the Signoria addressed the people, then a focus for popular tumult, was removed at the same time as the statue was replaced by Donatello’s on a pedestal in 1812.
The obscure name Marzocco, unfathomable to some scholars, would by others derive from Marte (Mars), whose Roman statue, noted by Dante and carried away by a flood of the Arno in 1333, had previously been Florence’s emblem. The lion is seated and with one paw supports the coat-of-arms of Florence, the fleur de lys called il giglio, the lily. Marzocco was` invoked in the Florentine battle cry and figures in Gentile Aretino’s poem “Alla battaglia”:
“San Giorgio, Marzoccho Marzoccho
suona percuoti, forbocta rintoccho Palle palle, Marzoccho Marzoccho
The Marzocco was such a powerful symbol of the Florentine Republic that the republican Florentine troops in the Siege of Florence (1529–1530) were known as marzoccheschi, “sons of the Marzocco”, and pro-Medici besiegers of the city in 1530 held a funeral and ritually buried a representation of it, with bells tolling. Prisoners of war from Pisa were forced to kiss it in 1364. At Anghiari, subject to Florence from 1385, the 15th-century Palazzo del Marzocco faces the church; at Montepulciano stands the Marzocco column; at Volterra the Marzocco stands against the Palazzo dei Priori, seat of government; at Livorno the 15th-century Torre del Marzocco (illustration

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, right) guards the harbor entrance; and at Pietrasanta there are a 16th-century Marzocco fountain and the Marzocco column, erected in 1513 when Pope Leo X awarded the commune to Florence.
In the subjected territory of Pisa, when Charles VIII of France entered Sarzana in 1494, the Pisans took the Marzocco, emblem of their subjugation to Florence, and cast it into the Arno. Live lions were kept at the commune’s expense from the Middle Ages until they were banished in 1771.
At times the Marzocco would be crowned according to a motto by the writer of novelle Franco Sacchetti:
“Corona porto, per la patria degna, Acciochè libertà ciascun mantegna.”
Donatello’s Marzocco was commissioned by the Republic of Florence for the apartment of Pope Martin V at Santa Maria Novella, where this traditional insegna of communal republican defense stood guard atop a column at the foot of the stairs that led to the sale del papa (“Papal apartments”) in the convent. It is sculpted in the fine-grained gray sandstone of Tuscany called pietra serena. The Pope lingered at Florence after leaving the Council of Constance during the Western Schism. This staircase was demolished, perhaps by 1515.
The Donatello Marzocco was moved to the Piazza della Signoria in 1812,
A crowned Marzocco Karen Millen Outlet UK, emphasizing the sovereign independence of Tuscany, appears on Tuscany’s first issue of postage stamps, 1851.
Il Marzocco was adopted for the name of a progressive weekly literary review in broadsheet format published in Florence in 1896–1932.

Boxology

A boxology is a representation of an organized structure as a graph of labeled nodes (“boxes”) and connections between them (as lines or arrows). The concept is useful because many problems in systems design are reducible to modular “black boxes” and connections or flow channels between them. The term is somewhat tongue-in-cheek and refers to the generic nature of diagrams containing labelled nodes and (sometimes directed) paths between them.
The archetypical example of a boxology is a corporate “org chart”

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, which describes lines of control through the corporation. Other boxologies include programming flow charts, system-level circuit diagrams for designing large complex circuits, and even economic models. Feynman diagrams are useful because they reduce the complicated mathematics of quantum mechanics to a simple boxology of particle interactions.
Depending on application, the boxes are optional; for example, the global carbon cycle is modeled as a boxology, but many figures explaining the model include only labels and directed connections.

Ivan Toms

Ivan Toms (11 July 1952 – 25 March 2008) was a South African physician, who battled the Apartheid era government as a prominent anti-Apartheid and anti-conscription activist. At the time of his death in 2008, Toms was serving as the Director of Health for the city of Cape Town, South Africa.

Ivan Toms was born in Cape Town on 11 July 1952. He received his medical degree from the University of Cape Town in 1976.
Toms was drafted into the national service in the South African Defence Force (SADF), as a non-combatant doctor in 1978. He opposed the goals of the SADF, but refused to leave South Africa. He spent much of his six months as a doctor in Namibia, which was then known as South West Africa and was controlled by South Africa.
Once he returned to Cape Town, Toms set up a medical clinic in the squatter settlement of Crossroads, which is located about 15 km outside of the city in the Cape Flats area. He was the only doctor who served the Crossroads’ population of approximately 60,000 people. In September 1983, Toms witnessed a three-week-long confrontation between the Crossroads community and the South African police and security forces, who were trying to tear down “illegal” buildings in the settlement. After witnessing the violence and brutality of the raid, Toms vowed never to serve in the SADF again, even in a non-combatant capacity. He went public with his opinions on what he had witnessed and became a founding member of the End Conscription Campaign (ECC) in 1983. Toms’ co-founders of the ECC included other prominent anti-conscription activists including Nan Cross.
Toms went on a three-week-long hunger strike in February 1985 to protest the government’s decision to buldoze the Crossroads shanty town. The destruction of Crossroads resulted in violence and the deaths of several people as residents tried to resist the destruction. Toms commented during his hunger strike that, “As a Christian, I am obliged to say no, to say never again will I put on that SADF uniform.”
The SADF officially took control of Toms’ health clinic in 1986. The following year, in July 1987, Toms defied the SADF when he was called up for one month of compulsory service. He was sentenced to 21 months in prison in 1988 for defying the order and ultimately served nine months in Pollsmoor Prison.
Ivan Toms became the national co-ordinator of the National Progressive Primary Healthcare Network in 1991 at the end of the Apartheid era. The AIDS virus was beginning to sweep through South Africa at the time. Toms, as the national co-ordinator, began to implement a series of programs to combat the spread of AIDS and HIV in the country. He was considered a pioneer in the advocacy of the use of antiretroviral drugs to fight the disease. He became director of the Students’ Health and Welfare Centres Organisation in 1993, which is a non-governmental organization which runs medical clinics staffed by students in poor areas. He continued to work for non-governmental charities until 1996, when he became the Health Director in the City of Cape Town. His name is remembered in the Ivan Toms Centre for Men’s Health (Cape Town) in Woodstock, Cape Town, which works in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of sexually transmitted infections.
South African President Thabo Mbeki awarded Ivan Toms with the Order of the Baobab in 2006 for his stance against Apartheid and his public service for South Africans in need.
Ivan Toms died unexpectedly of meningitis at his home in Mowbray on 25 March 2008, at the age of 54. He was honored by prominent South African political figures, including Archbishop Emeritus Desmond Tutu and the Mayor of Cape Town, Helen Zille. Archbishop Tutu described himself as “devastated” by the news of Toms’ death and paid tribute to him saying, “I thank God that I knew him. Knowing him makes (one) feel proud

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. This is a prime example of someone who had ubuntu. He was utterly selfless.” His funeral, which was attended by hundreds of people including Archbishop Tutu, was held at St. George’s Cathedral in Cape Town.

CJET-FM

CJET-FM is a Canadian radio station. Licensed to Smiths Falls, Ontario, the station serves the larger metropolitan Ottawa market broadcasting at 92.3 FM, with an adult hits format branded as 92.3 JACK FM. CJET has studios located in Smiths Falls (as part of its license agreement), with auxiliary studios located with the Rogers Ottawa cluster at Thurston Drive and Conroy Road in Ottawa, while its transmitter is located near Carleton Place.
The station was launched in 1955 by Rideau Broadcasting, at 1070 AM, and played a country music format. In 1958, the station’s frequency changed to 630.
In 1969, CJET-FM was also launched as a stereo simulcast of the AM signal

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. That station now uses the callsign CKBY.
In 1984, the AM and FM stations were sold to Harvey Glatt’s CHEZ-FM Inc., which was subsequently acquired by Rogers Communications, the stations’ current owner, in 1999. Rogers converted CJET to FM the following year, and the station adopted the Jack FM branding in 2004. In September 2015, the station changed its format to adult hits but kept the JACK-FM branding. The station’s format will feature hits from the late 60s through today.
Coordinates: 45°04′50″N 76°05′52″W / 45.08056°N 76.09778°W / 45.08056; -76.09778

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