Robert Walser

Robert Walser (ur. 15 kwietnia 1878 w Biel, zm. 25 grudnia 1956 w Herisau) – szwajcarski pisarz tworzący w języku niemieckim. Autor wierszy, powieści, dramatów oraz krótkich utworów prozą.

Urodził się w wielodzietnej rodzinie. Był siódmym dzieckiem z ośmiorga rodzeństwa. Do 1905 mieszkał głównie w Zurychu, następnie wyjechał do Berlina – w mieście tym mieszkał jego brat Karl, malarz, ilustrator, scenograf teatralny. Pracował w wielu zawodach, jako urzędnik

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, kopista, sekretarz, sprzedawca, bibliotekarz, lokaj. W 1913 wrócił do Szwajcarii (mieszkał u siostry w Bellelay, później w rodzinnym Biel do 1921 oraz w latach 1921–29 w Bernie). Walczył z problemami alkoholowymi, depresją

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, zapadł na schizofrenię. W 1929 został umieszczony w zakładzie dla umysłowo chorych w Waldau, później w Herisau, gdzie pozostawał aż do śmierci. Zmarł na serce podczas jednego z ulubionych samotnych spacerów w 1956 w pobliżu Herisau.
Za życia praktycznie nieznany, choć ceniony przez innych niemieckojęzycznych pisarzy (Kafka, Hesse, Musil).[potrzebny przypis] Na łamach prasy debiutował w 1898 w czasopiśmie “Der Bund”, także w latach późniejszych publikował swoje utwory w czasopismach. W czasie pobytu w Berlinie napisał kilka powieści opartych na motywach autobiograficznych, wydanych także w Polsce: Rodzeństwo Tanner (Geschwister Tanner 1907)

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, Willa pod Gwiazdą Wieczorną (Der Gehülfe 1908) i Jakub von Gunten (Jakob von Gunten 1909).
Jakub von Gunten to historia wychowanka szkoły służących. Autor sam uczęszczał do takiej placówki w Berlinie w 1905 roku. Bohaterami jego utworów są często młodzi ludzie niepewnie wkraczający w dorosły świat. Ceniony głównie za krótkie utwory pisane prozą

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. Właśnie w małych formach prozatorskich osiąga mistrzostwo stylu

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, odnotowując drobne wydarzenia i związane z nimi lęki oraz przeżycia. Bywa porównywany z Kafką, na którego twórczość mógł wywrzeć pewien wpływ.
Walser został odkryty w latach 60. XX wieku, przyczynił się do tego jego wieloletni opiekun, Carl Seelig. Oprócz jego powieści na język polski przełożono także wiele opowiadań i poezje: Przechadzka i inne utwory (1990), Dziwne miasto: Historie i rozprawki (2001), Mały krajobraz ze śniegiem (2003), Małe poematy (2003) Utwory prozą (2003) Mała proza (2003) Niedzielny spacer (2005).
W 1995 premierę miał film braci Quay – Instytut Benjamenta, będący adaptacją powieści Jakub von Gunten.

Kazimierz Wyrwas

Kazimierz Wyrwas ps. “Michał” (ur. 1905 w Piątnicy Poduchownej w powiecie łomżyńskim, zginął 14 czerwca 1944 na Porytowym Wzgórzu) – działacz komunistyczny, sekretarz II Obwodu (Lubelskiego Komitetu Obwodowego) PPR.
W 1925 wstąpił do KPP, od 1933 był sekretarzem Komitetu Dzielnicowego (KD) KPP, organizował manifestacje i strajki

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. W 1936 za działalność komunistyczną został skazany na 8 lat. Wydostał się z więzienia we wrześniu 1939, po czym we współpracy z Sowietami organizował w rodzinnej wsi czerwoną milicję i prowadził działalność na rzecz MOPR. Po wybuchu wojny niemiecko-sowieckiej 22 czerwca 1941 uciekł w głąb ZSRR, gdzie został skierowany do szkoły partyjnej przy Komitecie Wykonawczym Międzynarodówki Komunistycznej w Puszkino koło Moskwy. Jesienią 1943 został przerzucony przez linię frontu na Polesie, gdzie działał oddział partyzancki im. Tadeusza Kościuszki (Pińska Brygada Partyzancka). Na początku stycznia 1944 wraz z oddziałem AL Leona Kasmana “Janowskiego” przeprawił się przez Bug, kierując się do lasów parczewskich, gdzie nawiązał łączność z kierownictwem II Obwodu PPR i AL, którego został członkiem

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. Przejściowo kierował 4 Okręgiem PPR, obejmującym północną Lubelszczyznę. W połowie stycznia przeszedł na południową Lubelszczyznę. W marcu 1944, po śmierci Jana Sławińskiego “Tyfusa” w walce z Niemcami w Kaznowie, został sekretarzem II Obwodu PPR

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. 14 czerwca 1944 zginął w walce z Niemcami z bitwie na Porytowym Wzgórzu.
Jego brat Michał, również działacz KPP, a następnie członek PPR, w latach 1940-1941 był przewodniczącym Rady Wiejskiej w Piątnicy, a po wojnie został funkcjonariuszem łomżyńskiego UB

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. Zginął 11 maja 1945 pod Wyrzykami w walce z oddziałem poakowskim dowodzonym przez Stanisława Marchewkę “Rybę”.

Marc H. Ellis

Marc H. Ellis (born 1952) is an American author, liberation theologian, and a former University Professor of Jewish Studies, Professor of History and Director of the Center for Jewish Studies at Baylor University

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. He is currently visiting professor of several international universities, including the University of Innsbruck, Austria and the United Nations University for Peace, Costa Rica.

Ellis was a member of the Catholic Worker Movement in 1974-1975. He wrote an autobiographical book (1997) Unholy alliance: religion and atrocity in our time. He earned B.A. and M.A. degrees in Religion and American Studies at Florida State University, where he studied under Richard Rubenstein and William Miller. In 1980 he received his doctorate in contemporary American Social and Religious Thought from Marquette University. He then became a faculty member at the Maryknoll School of Theology in Maryknoll, New York, and director of the M.A. program at the Maryknoll Institute for Justice and Peace. He was made full professor in 1988, and remained at Maryknoll until 1995. He was a Senior Fellow and then visiting scholar at Harvard Divinity School’s Center for the Study of World Religions and Harvard University’s Center for Middle Eastern Studies, as well as a visiting professor at Florida State University. In 1998 he was appointed Professor of American and Jewish Studies at Baylor University, where the next year he was named University Professor of American and Jewish Studies. In 1999 he founded Baylor University’s Center for American and Jewish Studies. In 2006, the Center was renamed The Center for Jewish Studies.
His current writings deal with contemporary Judaism, Jewish liberation theology, Jewish-Arab relations

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, and justice and peace studies.
Ellis retired from Baylor University in 2012 and is currently visiting professor of international universities such as the United Nation mandated University for Peace in Costa Rica.
Among those who have commented appreciatively on the work of Ellis are George McGovern, Noam Chomsky, Edward Said, Professor Susannah Heschel, Elliot Dorff and Desmund Tutu.
0. http://www.baylor.edu/history/index

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Evgeny Messner

Evgeny Messner (Russian: Евгений Эдуардович Месснер, German: Eugen Messner; 1891–1974) was a Russian professional soldier and military theorist

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. A Russian German, he became an officer of the Imperial Russian Army. During the Russian Civil War he sided with the White movement and fought against the Bolsheviks

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, notably as the last chief of staff of Kornilov Division of the Army of General Wrangel.
After the war he fled to Yugoslavia as one of notable White émigrées. He settled in Belgrade where he remained an active member of the Russian All-Military Union and a professor at the Higher Military Courses of Belgrade. During World War II as an ardent anti-communist he sided with the Axis powers and the Russian Liberation Movement, and briefly served in the propaganda services of the Wehrmacht as head of the Russian section

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. In early 1945 he returned to active front-line service as a Major in Boris Smyslovsky’s 1st Russian National Army. Through Liechtenstein Messner and his family moved in 1947 to Argentina, where he continued his earlier work as a journalist, publisher, writer and military theorist.
His most well-known publication, “Mutiny, or the name of the Third World War” (Russian: Мятеж — имя третьей всемирной), predicted that the future wars would be waged by small terrorist cells and special forces, gaining influence by subversion and organised revolutions rather than through traditional warfare.
Messner died in Buenos Aires in 1974 and was buried at the British Cemetery there

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Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre

The Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre closed in 2013. Australia’s first fully integrated convention, exhibition and entertainment precinct, named International Convention Centre Sydney, is being built on its footprint and will open in December 2016. The new venue is part of a AU$3.4b revitalisation of Darling Harbour by the NSW Government.
An interim facility for large consumer and trade shows, Sydney Exhibition Centre @ Glebe Island, opened in February 2014 and will operate during the construction of the new Darling Harbour facilities

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The Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre was a key meeting venue of APEC Australia 2007 in September, 2007 when the political leaders of the 21 member states of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation met. The venue was host to the Business Leader’s Summit held in conjunction with APEC Leader’s Week.
The Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre was officially opened in 1988, with a new section of the centre added for the 2000 Summer Olympics. During those games, the venue played host to the boxing, fencing, judo, weightlifting, and wrestling competitions. The building was owned by the State Government of New South Wales, with the centre administration and business run by the Accor Hotel Group. The Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre was used as a conference and convention venue and to hold exhibitions, as well as hosting various smaller events such as weddings and meetings. The Convention Centre had around 30 rooms, ranging from small meeting rooms to a 3500 capacity auditiorium, as well as foyer areas and other spaces which can be adapted for use as an exhibition space or pre-dinner function venue. The Exhibition Centre consisted of six halls, used primarily for exhibitions, but also for gala dinners and other large-scale events.
The Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre was used as the biggest venue for the Sydney Olympic Games outside of Sydney Olympic Park.
The Sydney Monorail and Inner West Light Rail provided public transport to the centre. The monorail opened in 1988 and shut down in 2013. The light rail opened in 1997. The Convention and Exhibition Centre stations are named after the Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre.
The 1989 Sir John Sulman Medal for Public Architecture was awarded to Philip Cox Richardson Taylor Partners for Sydney Exhibition Centre, Darling Harbour (joint winner)

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Architects John Andrews and Philip Cox spoke out over the demolition of the convention and exhibition buildings completed in 1988. The Sydney Morning Herald carried the following story on January 16, 2014:
The renowned architect has spoken out for the first time on a plan to demolish the Sydney Convention Centre at Darling Harbour, blasting it as “rather stupid”.
“Does it make sense to pull down $120 million worth of [building] that’s perfectly all right?” he said. “As Australia, we just haven’t grown up, we haven’t developed any good manners and we don’t protect and look after our good things.” Andrews

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, 79, joins architect Philip Cox, who designed the adjoining exhibition centre, in lambasting plans to destroy the buildings rather than incorporate them into the new design.
Infrastructure NSW says Sydney needs world-class facilities to more effectively compete for large events, and the existing buildings are too small to meet demand. But Mr Andrews questioned why the centre couldn’t be expanded. “I don’t understand why the [new] architects … are so keen to knock everything down, he said. Why don’t they just reuse things and add to them?”
Authorities did not ring to advise him of the building’s pending demolition – he learnt of it while reading the newspaper. Considered one of Australia’s most important architects, Mr Andrews is renowned for the futuristic Intelsat Headquarters in Washington, the CN Tower in Toronto and the Graduate School of Design at Harvard University.
In Australia, he designed the Cameron Offices in Canberra, the American Express Tower in Sydney and convention centres in Melbourne and Adelaide. The decision to destroy the semi-circular convention centre displayed “a lack of understanding of history, of architecture or city planning”, he said.
An INSW spokeswoman said until the Lend Lease consortium was announced as the chosen developer last month, “we didn’t have a proposal to discuss with any architect”. The Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority was legally obliged to consult with the architects “only a few weeks prior to demolition”, however, it planned to “go beyond the requirement to ensure the relevant architects have plenty of time to understand the proposed development, provide their feedback and record their work,” the spokeswoman said.
Media related to Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre at Wikimedia Commons
Coordinates: 33°52′33″S 151°12′01″E / 33.87585°S 151

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Dietmar Huhn

Gottfried Vollmer et Dietmar Huhn
modifier
Dietmar Huhn est un acteur allemand né le 31 août 1944 à Tanneberg.
Dietmar Huhn a fait ses études dans le même établissement que Carina Wiese, à la grande école théâtrale « Hans Otto » à Leipzig et obtient son diplôme en 1970

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. Il a débuté sur les planches d’un théâtre à Berlin puis a joué dans quelques téléfilms

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Dietmar a pris le rôle de Henry Grandberger à partir de la deuxième saison d’Alerte Cobra (Alarm für Cobra 11 – Die Autobahnpolizei) et a dû quitter la série, parce qu’Action Concept voulait rajeunir l’équipe d’Alerte Cobra. Sa dernière apparition est en septembre 2011 dans l’épisode Au-delà des frontières, où il se fait assassiner en voulant sauver Ben Jäger (Tom Beck) qui allait se faire tuer.
Dietmar Huhn est très connu pour le rôle de Henry Hertzberger dans la célèbre série allemande Alerte Cobra

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. Il arrive dans la série dès la saison 2. Quelques saisons plus tard arrive Boris Bonrad (Gottfried Vollmer) qui devient son meilleur ami et coéquipier

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. Henry sera l’un des personnages étant restés le plus longtemps dans la série derrière Semir Gerkhan. Il sera finalement tué juste avant son départ à la retraite en voulant sauver son ami Ben Jäger

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Dashiin Damba

Dashiin Damba (Mongolian: Дашийн Дамба; March 29, 1908 – c. 1989) was a Mongolian politician who was elected First Secretary of the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party (MPRP) in 1954. He was ousted from office in 1958 and banished to internal exile a year later for his strong backing of de-Stalinization policies against the wishes of Mongolia’s Prime Minister Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal.

Damba was born on March 29, 1908, in Daiching Zasag banner (present day Teshig Sum, Bulgan Province). He joined the highly radicalized Mongolian Revolutionary Youth League (MYRL) in 1924, quickly rising to leadership positions first at local district levels then in Ulaanbaatar. From 1929 to 1930, he directed MYRL “shock troops” carrying out MPRP policies of rapid collectivization of small herders and the confiscation and redistribution of property belonging to the country’s nobles.
Damba officially joined the MPRP in 1930 and graduated from the party school in Ulaanbaatar in 1932. He was appointed Political commissar in the Mongolian People’s Army and propagandized to government troops fighting armed insurgencies in Khövsgöl, Arkhangai, Övörkhangai, and Zavkhan provinces.
In 1938 he was elected provincial party secretary of the MPRP in Ömnögovi Province and a year later became a member of the MPRP Presidium and Secretary of the Ulaanbaatar MPRP Central Committee.
As the violent Stalinist repressions in Mongolia drew to a close in 1939, Mongolia’s leader Khorloogiin Choibalsan recruited Damba to assist in the arrest and rendition to the Soviet Union of Deputy Interior Minister Darizavyn Losol, one of the last remaining founding members of the MPRP. Damba deceived Losol into boarding a plane he believed was bound for Dornod Province in eastern Mongolia. Losol was instead flown to Moscow. In 1940, Damba was involved in another high profile arrest, this time of MPRP First Secretary Banzarjavyn Baasanjav whom Choibalsan sought to have purged to make way for Stalin’s new favorite Tsedenbal. Damba was named MPRP First Secretary for just two months in 1940, effectively a place holder until Tsedenbal could ascend to the role. Despite his services to Choibalsan, Damba never managed to become part of Mongolian leader’s inner circle.
During the Second World War Damba was instrumental in organizing Mongolian aid for the Soviet Army, and was later awarded the Soviet Order of the Red Banner of Labour for his efforts. He was elected to the MPRP Politburo in 1943 and again in 1947. From 1947 to 1954 he served as Second Secretary of the MPRP Central Committee under Tsedenbal

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After Choibalsan’s death in 1952, the MPRP, following the example of the Communist Party in the USSR following Stalin’s death, moved to devolve political power away from a single strongman and instead institute a system of collective leadership. Delegates at the Twelfth MPRP Congress in 1954 elected Damba to replace Tsedenbal as First Secretary of MPRP, while Tsedenbal retained the post of Prime Minister.
Damba’s tenure as party secretary saw the establishment of formal diplomatic relations with India in 1955, the first time a non-communist country recognized Mongolia’s independence. Relations with China also improve considerably, especially after Damba met personally with Mao Zedong in September 1956 in Beijing to discuss Chinese aid to Mongolia. When relations between the two countries deteriorated a year later, Damba would be accused of being too “pro-Chinese.”
In 1956, with de-Stalinization unfolding in the Soviet Union, the MPRP embarked on a similar policy in Monoglia, producing the first public denunciation of Marshal Choibalsan. The deceased dictator was criticized for committing “errors” against socialist principles, including his role in the repressions and the establishment of his cult of personality, and a special commission was formed to reevaluate purge victims in the Stalin-Choibalsan years. While Damba supported giving the commission access to top-secret Interior Ministry files on the purges, Tsedenbal, a former protégé of Choibalsan, was opposed to continuing de-Stalinization efforts. When in 1957 Tsedenbal planned to arrest the Commission’s Chairman Bazaryn Shirendev and another rival as “imperialist spies,” Damba persuaded him to delay and then drop the charges.
The Soviet-educated Tsedenbal viewed Damba as “backward,” lazy, and uneducated. He engineered Damba’s removal from office in November 1958, just six months after the Thirteenth MPRP congress had reelected him to the position. Taking a cue from Nikita Khrushchev’s 1957 consolidation of power in the USSR by purging political rivals Georgy Malenkov and Nikolai Bulganin, Tsedenbal accused Damba of “profound ideological-political backwardness, conservatism and inertia” and “opportunist tolerance of distortions and shortcomings.” Just over a year later

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, in November 1959, Damba was sent into internal exile and demoted to director of the Ikh-Uul district animal husbandry machinery station in remote Khövsgöl Province . In 1962 Damba became deputy director of the Institute of Agriculture, a position he held until 1977.
The circumstances around his death are unknown, however he is believed to have died 1989

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In 1990 the MPRP Central Committee declared the charges against him unfounded and in 2008, Sükhbaatar district court declared him a victim of the repression.

Nancy Hanks Lincoln heritage

There is long standing controversy regarding Nancy Hanks Lincoln’s heritage. Nancy was the wife of Thomas Lincoln and mother of the 16th president Abraham Lincoln. Her familial background according to historian Albert J. Beveridge is as “Dim as the dream of a shifting mirage… her face and figure waver through the mists of time and rumor.”
There are two dominant theories about Nancy’s maternal heritage:
A recent mitochondrial DNA test of descendants of daughters of Joseph Hanks, daughters of Lucy Hanks Sparrow, and two Shipley sisters show a match between Hanks and Sparrow and no match to the Shipleys, making it certain Nancy Hanks is the illegitimate daughter of Lucy Hanks, and that Lucy is the daughter of Ann “Nanny” Lee Hanks.
This article explores the information about Nancy’s heritage published in books and national, state or local historic site literature.

Nancy’s mother, Lucy, is related to the Hanks, either through birth or marriage. Nancy’s grandparents are believed to be Ann (“Nannie”) and Joseph Hanks of North Farnham Parish, Richmond County, Virginia. They are said to have raised her from infancy until about nine years of age when her grandfather died.
The question is whether Nancy is related to the Hanks on her paternal or maternal side.
… He [Thomas Lincoln] married Nancy Hanks – mother of the present subject [Abraham Lincoln] – in the year 1806. She was also born in Virginia; and relatives of hers of the name of Hanks, and other names, now reside in Coles, in Macon, and in Adams Counties, Illinois, and also in Iowa.
Daguerreotype of Abraham Lincoln at age 54, 1863
Depiction of Nancy Hanks Lincoln, courtesy of Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial
John Hanks, cousin of Nancy Hanks Lincoln
Dennis Hanks, cousin of Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in his younger days.
Nancy Hanks first lived in her grandparents’, Joseph and Ann Hanks’, cabin in what was then Hampshire County, VA (now Mineral County, West Virginia). The Hanks family, with Lucy and Nancy, then moved in March, 1784 to Kentucky. In 1787 they settled about 2 miles north of the mouth of Pottinger’s Creek and Rolling Fork, in a settlement called Rolling Fork or Pottinger’s Creek settlement, in Nelson County, Kentucky.
Joseph Hanks died in 1793. It is commonly believed by historians that Nancy’s grandmother, also named Nancy but generally called Ann, decided to return to the homeland of her youth and much of her adulthood in old Farnham parish in Virginia. At that time, Nancy went to live for an unspecified period of time with her mother who was now Lucy Hanks Sparrow, having married Henry Sparrow in Harrodsburg, Kentucky two or three years earlier. Then, in 1796, after her aunt Elizabeth married Thomas Sparrow, Nancy went to live with the newly married couple and called them “mother” and “father”. The Sparrows are said to have been neighbors of John Berry.
Regarding the stigma of an unwed mother, author Ralph Gary wrote: “Lucy’s baby, if born out of wedlock, was not only a disgrace, but also subjected Lucy to an indictable offense at the time.”
After “fornication” charges were brought against Lucy Hanks in November, 1789 in Mercer County, Kentucky Henry Sparrow announced that he would marry Lucy and in 1790 signed a marriage bond. On April 26, 1790 the marriage license was issued and the following year, on April 3, 1791, the couple was married by a Baptist preacher, Reverend John Bailey. In May of 1790, the court met and dropped the charges against Lucy Hanks.
Following Lucy’s marriage to Henry Sparrow, the couple had eight or nine children and Lucy had a reputation as a “fine Christian woman”. Two sons were loyal to the Union during the Civil War and were preachers. Per authors Harold and Ernestine Briggs, “After her marriage there were no more complaints against her character.”
Elizabeth Hanks, daughter of Joseph Hanks, married Thomas Sparrow in Mercer County, Kentucky in 1796. Thomas was Henry Sparrow’s brother. That year Nancy went to live with the newly married couple – whom she called “mother and father”. Nancy then also began to be called Nancy Sparrow.[nb 4] Lucy’s sister Nancy Hanks gave birth to an illegitimate son in 1799 named Dennis Friend Hanks who was also raised by Elizabeth and Thomas Sparrows. Dennis was Nancy Hanks Lincoln’s cousin.
The Thomas Lincoln family and Elizabeth and Thomas Sparrow often lived near one another. Nancy and Thomas Lincoln’s home near Hodgenville at Nolin Creek was about 2 miles from the Sparrow’s cabin. Elizabeth (“Betsy”) ministered to baby and mother at Abraham Lincoln’s birth in 1809. Then, in 1817 one year after Thomas and Nancy moved to Indiana, Nancy’s Aunt Elizabeth Sparrow, Uncle Thomas Sparrow and Cousin Dennis Hanks moved onto Lincoln’s property at Little Pigeon Creek (at the Little Pigeon Creek Community). The Sparrows died in September 1818 of milk sickness, weeks later in early October Nancy also died of the poisoned milk. Nancy Hanks Lincoln was buried next to Elizabeth and Thomas Sparrow “on a knoll overlooking” the cabin.
Abraham Lincoln, however, did not apparently know while growing up that the people introduced to him as Aunt Lucy and Uncle Henry were truly his grandmother and step-grandfather and Elizabeth Hanks Sparrow was not “Granny”, but his aunt.
An alternate theory about Nancy Hanks’ parentage is that she is not an illegitimate child born to Lucy, but the daughter of Lucy Shipley and James Hanks, who was believed to have died before Lucy moved to Kentucky. In this case, Joseph and Ann Hanks are Lucy’s in-laws. Author Louis Warren claimed that Lucy was the sister of Rachel Shipley who married Richard Berry and Naomi Shipley who married Robert Mitchell. The Shipley girl’s father was believed to be Robert Shipley. The primary sources for this information are decades old publications.[nb 5]
It is clear from multiple sources that Nancy Hanks lived at the Berry’s household for some period of time, the exact time period(s), however, is unclear. See the following section regarding the “Berry family” for information regarding Rachel Shipley and Richard Berry, Sr’s family.
There is also a theory that Captain Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Lincoln’s father, was married first to Mary Shipley.[nb 6] Lea and Hutchinson said in 1909 that Mary Shipley was from Lunenburg County, Virginia. She was believed to be the daughter of Robert and Sarah Shipley. Having died by 1779, Mary is believed, under this theory, to be the mother of Captain Abraham Lincoln’s oldest children. Bathsheba Lincoln appears on real estate documents by 1780 and is believed to be the mother of Thomas Lincoln.
Author and historian William Barton said in 1927 that the following account was undisputed for 25 years: Mary Shipley was sister to women who married: Joseph Hanks, maternal grandfather of Nancy Hanks, Mr. Berry, Mr. Mitchell and Mr. Thompson, all from Lunenburg County, Virginia. All five Shipley sisters are said to have moved to Washington County, Kentucky

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. This would make the following connection for Abraham: “Thomas Lincoln, son of Abraham and Mary Shipley Lincoln

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, married Nancy daughter of Joseph and Mary Shipley Hanks; and their second child and first son was Abraham Lincoln.” However, Barton was unable to find any documentation that showed that the Hanks and Shipleys lived near one another during the time periods in question. There were Hawks family members, though, who lived near Shipleys, Mitchells and Thompsons; previous writers assumed the Hawks family were later called the Hanks family. He did find, though, the birthplace of Nancy Hanks in Hampshire County, Virginia and the Joseph Hanks family on the 1782 census for that area.
There are some areas where there seems to be a clear intersection of Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hank’s lives with the Berrys:
What is not clear, and what is disputed by contemporary historians, is whether or not Nancy Hanks is of Shipley ancestry and whether she lived with the Berrys during her childhood. Two key sources of information about Nancy Hanks living with the Berrys as a child are 1) Sarah Mitchell, who lived with the Richard Berry, Sr. and Rachel Shipley Berry after 1785, and 2) Robert Mitchell Berry, son of Richard Berry, Jr., who says that Nancy Hanks lived with Richard Berry, Jr.
The Berry family in Nancy Hank’s history lived in Beechland, north of Springfield. The neighborhood was a piece of land created by a horseshoe bend in the Beech Fork River. Richard Berry, Sr. had settled in the area and in 1781 or 1782 sold a 100-acre piece of his property along a creek known now as Lincoln Run to Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln reputedly built a cabin for the Lincoln family before his death in May, 1786.[nb 7]
Richard Berry, Sr.’s brother, Francis, was also an early settler in the Beechland neighborhood.
The Mercer County community brought charges against Lucy Hanks for “fornication” in November, 1789. John Berry of Doctor’s Fork of the Chaplin River (near Perrysville), son of Rachel Shipley and Richard Berry, was on the Grand Jury. A few days before a 1790 court date, Henry Sparrow initiated a marriage bond for Lucy Hanks and himself. John Berry and Robert Mitchell (first cousin to John Berry, son of Rachel and Richard Berry) witnessed Lucy’s signature to the bond.
According to Louis Warren, whose research has been lauded but his findings have been disputed by modern historians, particularly “his interpretation of facts”: Nancy Hanks came to live with the Rachel Shipley and Richard Berry family after her mother married (after 1790). During her time with the Berrys she befriended neighbor Thomas Lincoln. She later [unspecified time] came to live with the Richard Berry, Jr. family.
Warren further states that: In 1795 sixteen-year-old Sarah Mitchell was sent to live with her maternal aunt Rachel Shipley Berry. She was freed from Native Americans who she lived with since her mother Naomi Shipley Mitchell was killed at an ambush at a place called Defeated. According to Troy Cowan, her father Robert Mitchell drowned trying to rescue his daughter in 1790. Nancy Hanks was also living with the Berrys by 1795 and the girls believed they were first cousins and became quite close, and are also believed to have named daughters after each other. In 1800 Sarah married and moved away.
According to the Nancy Hanks Lincoln biography written by the Briggs, Nancy did not live with the Berrys while Rachel and Richard’s sons Edward and Francis were still at home, but after Richard and John were married.
According to Troy Cowan, some of whose findings are suspect, states that Nancy went to work for the Berrys in 1800, two years after the death of Richard Berry, Sr. and following the marriage of Richard and Rachel Berry’s daughter Sarah. Aside from being a seamstress, Nancy also wove her own fabric. When Nancy was 20 years of age (about 1804), Rachel Berry died and Nancy then worked for Francis and Elizabeth Berry. In addition to sewing, she also took care of the couple’s three children. She had a bit of a reputation for being familiar with boys. During this period of time Thomas was picking up work from the Sparrow, Berry and Bush families.
Francis Berry was married two years after his father’s death, likely in 1800. Author Dan Davenport claims that Nancy Hanks lived at the Francis Berry house when she was courted by Thomas Lincoln.
The 1913 obituary for 95-year-old Robert Mitchell Berry that Richard Berry, Jr. raised Nancy Hanks and signed her marriage bond. Robert Mitchell Berry was Richard Berry, Jr.’s son. Born in 1769, Richard Berry, Jr. was 15 years older than Nancy.
On June 12, 1806, Hanks married Thomas Lincoln at the home of Richard Berry in Beechland by Reverend Jesse Head. Nancy was brought to the home to work as a seamstress by her friend Polly Ewing Berry, the wife of Richard Berry Jr. since October 10, 1794. Polly was a friend of Nancy’s from Mercer County, Kentucky and Richard Berry, Jr. was a good friend of Thomas Lincoln.
Nancy’s marriage bond was signed by Richard Berry, Jr

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. who identified himself as her guardian. Per Warren, “The title had no legal significance, Berry having never been so appointed, and Nancy Hanks was then of age. But of him to call himself ‘guardian’ was a courtesy customary under such circumstances” [no father able to sign the marriage bond].
According to author Ralph Gary, one theory is that upon moving to Washington County, Kentucky Lucy and Nancy lived at Beech Fork with relatives Rachel Shipley Berry and Richard Berry. He further stated that Rachel was considered by some to be one of Lucy’s sisters. The National Park Service states in their summary of Nancy Hanks life that Richard Berry is an uncle of Nancy’s. This fits with the theory that Rachael Shipley is a relative of Lucy Shipley who married a Hanks.
This information, though, is not present in recent, solid historical books about Nancy Hanks. Perhaps a sign that the Berrys did not consider Nancy a daughter, in Richard Berry’s will he mentions a daughter Sarah [Mitchell], but not Nancy.
Published information about Nancy’s mother being Lucy Shipley and her father being James Hanks is contrary to the theory that Nancy was illegitimate and that Lucy was born into the Hanks family, as was published by William E. Barton in the “Life of Abraham Lincoln” and Michael Burkhimer in “100 Essential Lincoln Books”. John M. Hay and John George Nicolay, authors of “Abraham Lincoln” asserted that Berry was a connection of Lincoln’s. In his book, Doug Wead stated that Rachel was working for Richard Berry as a seamstress.
Abraham’s law partner William Herndon reported that Abraham told him that Nancy’s father was “a well-bred Virginia farmer or planter

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.”
Lincoln is quoted as saying: “I don’t know who my grandfather was; I am much more concerned to know what his grandson will be.”
Mitochondrial DNA testing.
In October 2015, a mitochondrial DNA test was published showing that matrilineal descendants of Lucy Hanks Sparrow were a match to matrilineal descendants of Joseph Hanks and Ann Lee of Nelson County Kentucky (through Nancy Hanks Hall and Mary Hanks Friend.) This study also show a match to descendants of Sophia Hanks LeGrand and Margaret Hanks LeGrand, daughters of Sally Hanks, another child born to Lucy Hanks before her marriage to Henry Sparrow. This definitively shows that Lucy Hanks was born a Hanks, not a Shipley. Matrilineal descendants of Naomi Shipley Mitchell and Rachel Shipley Berry were also included, and they do not match.
:(1) It’s unclear if Nancy Hanks lived the entire three years (1793-1796) with her mother prior to moving in with her aunt, Elizabeth Hanks and newly married uncle, Thomas Sparrow.
There was some confusion about which Nancy Hanks was the mother of Abraham Lincoln. Mother Nancy was sometimes confused with her great-aunt, Nancy Hanks.
One rumor is that Nancy Hanks was raised in Rutherford County, North Carolina. Rather than being based upon published information or direct family member testimony, this theory was based upon locals belief of rumors that Hanks was raised in North Carolina. She is also said to have come to Kentucky in 1786 from the Catawba River area of North Carolina.
Another rumor was that Nancy Hanks was born into the Tanner family and was raised by Abraham Enlow of Rutherford County, North Carolina. Another rumor, perhaps the start of all Abraham Enlow rumors, was that Abraham Enloe or Enlow was Abraham’s birth father. The story is that Thomas and Nancy’s neighbor at the time of Abraham’s birth, Abraham Enlow, was the birth father. What makes this difficult is that the Lincolns did not move near the Enlows until Nancy had already conceived Abraham, Enlow would have been 14 at that time and Enlow never admitted to being the father of Abraham Lincoln. He did tell a story, though, that the child was named after him [perhaps not knowing that Thomas’ father was named Abraham] because he was sent to get midwives to assist Nancy in the birth of the baby.[nb 8] Stories then emerged of other Abraham Enlows or Engloes who may have been the birth father.

Kyle Soller

Kyle Soller (born 1983) is an American actor

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.

Following his training at RADA in London, having acted in various plays following his graduation in 2008, his breakthrough year came in 2011 where he starred in The Glass Menagerie at the Young Vic

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, The Government Inspector also at the Young Vic and in The Faith Machine at the Royal Court Theatre. Based on these performances he won the Evening Standard Theatre Award for Outstanding Newcomer.[citation needed]
In 2012 Soller starred in the West End hit A Long Day’s Journey Into Night by Eugene O’Neill with David Suchet, Laurie Metcalf and Trevor White at the Apollo Theatre, and in the Roundabout Theatre Company’s production of Cyrano de Bergerac as Christian at the American Airlines Theatre in New York.
Soller has also recently been in BBC Three’s comedy Bad Education as the new teacher Mr Schwimer, and BBC One’s Poldark, playing Ross’s cousin

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, Francis. Currently he’s starring as an expert on apocalypses, Scotty, in Sky 1’s comedy drama You, Me and the Apocalypse

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.
Soller is married to actress Phoebe Fox

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, whom he met at RADA. The couple live in London.
* he was awarded the prize for his performance in the three plays

Nicobariodendron sleumeri

Nicobariodendron sleumeri ist die einzige Art der Pflanzengattung Nicobariodendron. Der Baum ist auf den zu Indien gehörenden Nikobaren beheimatet. Er ist nur wenig erforscht, auch seine systematische Positionierung innerhalb der Bedecktsamer ist unklar.

Nicobariodendron sleumeri ist ein Baum, der Wuchshöhen von 8 bis 35 Metern erreicht

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. Die 1 bis 6 mm dicken, stielrunden Zweige besitzen eine kahle

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, gräuliche, bräunliche oder schwärzliche Rinde, die von mit weißlichen Lentizellen besetzt ist. Die wechselständig und zweizeilig angeordneten Laubblätter sind in Blattstiel und Blattspreite gegliedert. Der Blattstiel ist 3 bis 8 mm lang und 1 bis 2 mm dick. Die Form ungeteilten Blattspreite ist länglich-elliptisch bis verkehrteiförmig-elliptisch; sie sind 5,5 bis 10 cm lang, 2 bis 4 cm breit und ganzrandig. Der Spreitengrund ist verschmälert, die abgerundete Spreitenspitze trägt eine plötzlich abgesetzte, 5 bis 12 mm lange, stumpfe Träufelspitze. Sie haben eine lederige Struktur und eine kahle, glänzende Oberfläche. In trockenem Zustand sind sie auf der Oberseite dunkel rötlichbraun, braun oder schwärzlich, auf der Unterseite braun und punktiert, mit fiederförmiger Aderung. Die Mittelrippe ist auf der Blattoberseite flach oder, wie auf der Unterseite immer, leicht hervortretend. Die fünf bis neun Paar Seitenadern sind dünn und auf der Unterseite deutlicher zu erkennen als auf der Oberseite; sie sind gegen den Blattrand gebogen und vernetzen sich. Zwischen den Seitenadern bilden kleinere, auf der Unterseite deutlichere Adern ein Netzwerk. Nebenblätter fehlen.
Nicobariodendron sleumeri ist zweihäusig getrenntgeschlechtig (diözisch). Die männlichen Blütenstände sind achselständige, meist einzeln, selten zu zweit oder dritt stehende, meist einfache, selten durch ein bis zwei Verzweigungen am Grund zusammengesetzte Trauben. Die Traubenachse ist dünn, 4 bis 11 cm lang, am Grund 0,8 bis 1,2 mm dick, längsstreifig und spärlich kurz weißlich-steifhaarig. Die Deckblätter sind pfriemlich oder oft dreieckig oder eiförmig, 1 bis 2 mm lang, 0,5 bis 1 mm breit, auf der Oberfläche kahl oder manchmal spärlich kurz weißlich-steifhaarig, am Rand mit weißlichen Wimpern. Die Blütenstiele sind 1,2 bis 2 mm lang, 0,2 bis 0,3 mm dick und kahl.
Die duftenden männlichen Blüten haben einen Durchmesser von etwa 2 mm. Der Kelch ist vier- bis fünfzählig, etwa 2 mm lang und kahl, die sich überdeckenden Kelchzipfel sind länglich bis eiförmig oder oft dreieckig-eiförmig, 1 bis 1,5 mm lang, 0,6 bis 1,2 mm breit und stumpf. Die vier bis fünf freien, sich überdeckenden, gelblichen Kronblätter sitzen am Rand des Diskus vor den Lücken zwischen den Kelchzipfeln; sie sind meist länglich, manchmal auch eiförmig, 1,2 bis 1,5 mm lang, 0

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,7 bis 1 mm breit, stumpf und kahl. Der ringförmige, innerhalb des Staubblattkreises liegende Diskus ist konkav, leicht fleischig und mit kurzen weißlichen Flaumhaaren bedeckt. Die beiden Staubblätter sind frei, sitzen nebeneinander am Grund der Kronblätter und überragen die Krone. Die Staubfäden sind 1,5 bis 2,5 mm lang, dünn, aber am Grund verbreitert. Die Staubbeutel sind mit ihrem Rücken an den Staubfäden befestigt, bestehen aus zwei Theken und reißen der Länge nach auf. Sie sind kreisförmig und haben einen Durchmesser von 0

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,5 bis 0,7 mm. Der rudimentäre Stempel (Pistillodium) ist etwas in den Diskus eingesenkt; er ist klein und hat einen fadenförmigen Griffel.
Die weiblichen Blüten sind unbekannt. Die achselständigen Fruchtstände sind 6 bis 10 cm lang und einfache oder oft zusammengesetzte Trauben mit ein bis zwei Verzweigungen am Grund. Die Fruchtstandsachse ist längsstreifig, am Grund 1 bis 2 mm dick und spärlich mit kurzen, weißlichen, steifen Haaren bedeckt. Die einfächerigen Steinfrüchte sind länglich-ellipsoid oder schmal verkehrt-eiförmig, 17 bis 20 mm lang, etwa 10 mm dick, am Grund zusammengezogen, an der Spitze gerundet oder abgeflacht. Sie sind kahl, dünnwandig, braun und haben eine schwach geriefte Oberfläche. Der Fruchtstiel ist etwa 3 mm lang, 0,8 bis 1 mm dick. Die fünf die Frucht tragenden Fruchtkelchblätter sind länglich, 1,5 bis 2 mm lang, 0,8 bis 1 mm breit und stumpf. Der Diskus ist abgeflacht, leicht fleischig und mit kurzen weißlichen Flaumhaaren bedeckt. Der einzige Samen ist am Grund der Höhlung der Frucht angeheftet.
Nicobariodendron sleumeri blüht im Oktober und fruchtet im Dezember.
Nicobariodendron sleumeri ist ein Endemit der Nikobaren-Inseln und bisher von den etwa 80 Kilometer auseinanderliegenden Inseln Groß Nikobar und Katchal bekannt. Dort kommt die Art in Wäldern im Inland in Höhenlagen von bis zu 100 Meter vor.
Nicobariodendron sleumeri wurde 1986 anhand von zwei Herbarbelegen beschrieben: einer stammte von einem männlichen Baum auf Groß Nikobar, der andere von einem weiblichen Baum auf Katchal. Seither sind keine weiteren Forschungsergebnisse bekannt geworden. Details der weiblichen Blüten, insbesondere den Bau der Fruchtknoten und Samenanlagen sowie der Samen, der Borke und des Stammes sind unbekannt geblieben

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. In der Erstbeschreibung und in den meisten Folgepublikationen wird dieser Baum provisorisch in die Familie der Spindelbaumgewächse (Celastraceae) gestellt. Wegen der eigentümlichen Merkmalskombination und den fehlenden Daten zum Fruchtknoten, zur Holz-Anatomie und zu molekularen Merkmalen bleibt diese Familienzuordnung unsicher. In APG III wurde auch keine Zuordnung auf Ordnungsebene vorgenommen.
Das Artepitheton sleumeri ehrt den deutsch-niederländischen Botaniker Hermann Sleumer (1906–1993), der an ihrer Erforschung beteiligt war.

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