Beamer (LaTeX)

Beamer to nazwa LaTeX-owej klasy glass water bottle with filter, pomyślanej jako pomoc w tworzeniu prezentacji multimedialnych. W świecie LaTeX-a i TeX-a Beamer spełnia tę funkcję co Impress w OpenOffice. Klasa Beamer współpracuje z programami pdflatex, dvips i LyX. Nazwa programu pochodzi od niemieckiego słowa “Beamer”, pseudoanglicyzmu, oznaczającego projektor wideo.

Klasa Beamer wprowadza własny dialekt LaTeX-a dla tworzenia slajdów (zwane w Beamerze jako “frames”) us soccer goalie. Slajdy mogą być pokazywane na ekranie etapami, odkrywając fragmenty tekstu, które były dotąd schowane lub zakryte. Ta cecha jest realizowana poprzez tworzenie w pliku wyjściowym kolejnych stron discount goalkeeper gloves, które zachowują układ strony pierwotnej, lecz dodają nowe elementy. W ten sposób przechodzenie do nowej strony w pliku PDF stwarza wrażenie dodawania czegoś do wyświetlanej właśnie strony. Oprócz klasy Beamer istnieją inne klasy stworzone dla LaTeX-a i służące temu samemu celowi.

Klasa Beamer umożliwia też tworzenie “handouts” tj. materiałów drukowanych do rozdawania słuchaczom lub publikacji w sieci. W takim przypadku w materiałach znajdzie się końcowa wersja każdego ze slajdów, bez jego cech dynamicznych. Istnieje tez opcja article do wydrukowania na standardowych arkuszach A4, czarno na białym. W takim przypadku tytuły slajdów pojawiają się jako nagłówki. Opcja ta zachowuje rozdziały i może służyć jako notatki do wykładów lub do przechowywania w jednym pliku obu wersji: artykułu i jego prezentacji.

Jenna Miscavige Hill

Jenna Miscavige Hill (* 1. Februar 1984 in Concord, New Hampshire, USA) ist eine amerikanische Scientologyaussteigerin und Buchautorin.

Nachdem sie Scientology 2005 verließ, wurde sie zu einer Kritikerin der Organisation. Sie ist die Tochter von Ron Miscavige, Jr. und die Nichte des derzeitigen Scientology-Führers David Miscavige.

Hill begründete zusammen mit Kendra Wiseman und Astra Woodcraft, die auch in Scientology-Familien aufwuchsen, die Webseite exscientologykids.com. Sie wurde von vielen Medien über ihre Erfahrungen innerhalb von Scientology befragt, einschließlich ABCs Nightline im April 2008, und auf Piers Morgan Tonight im Februar 2013, wobei sie über Einzelheiten von Scientology sprach.

Im Jahr 2000, als Hill 16 Jahre alt war, verließen ihr Vater und ihre Mutter Scientology. Hill erklärte, dass wegen der von Scientology angeordneten Disconnection zu Verwandten und Freunden, die Scientology nicht unterstützen oder feindlich dazu eingestellt sind, Briefe von ihren Eltern abgefangen wurden und sie für ein Jahr nicht an das Telefon gehen durfte.

Sie beschreibt ihre Erfahrung im Alter von fünf bis zwölf Jahren wie folgt: „Wir mussten alle unsere Verstöße, ähnlich der Sünde in der katholischen Kirche junior football shirts, niederschreiben. Nachdem wir sie alle niedergeschrieben hatten, wurden wir mit Hilfe eines E-Meters überprüft, um sicher zu stellen, dass wir nichts für uns behielten; wir mussten solange schreiben, bis das Gerät grünes Licht gab.“ (“We were also required to write down all transgressions .. clothes shaver reviews.similar to a sin in the Catholic religion. After writing them all down, we would receive a meter check on the electropsychometer to make sure we weren’t hiding anything, and you would have to keep writing until you came up clean.”) Sie ist verheiratet und hat drei Kinder.

Im September 2012 erklärte sie silver football socks, dass sie ihre Lebensgeschichte in ihrem Buch Beyond Belief: My Secret Life Inside Scientology and My Harrowing Escape beschreiben werde. Es erschien im Januar 2013 bei William Morrow im Verlag HarperCollins. Das Buch schrieb sie gemeinsam mit Lisa Pulitzer. Es erschien auch in deutscher Übersetzung unter dem Titel Mein geheimes Leben bei Scientology und meine dramatische Flucht. Es erreichte im April 2013 die Spiegel-Bestsellerliste.

Eligio Perucca

Eligio Perucca (Potenza, 28 marzo 1890 – Roma, 5 gennaio 1965) è stato un fisico italiano.

Laureatosi all’Università di Pisa nel 1910, e diplomatosi alla Scuola Normale Superiore nel 1913, fu dal 1923 al 1926 professore straordinario alla cattedra di fisica sperimentale del Politecnico di Torino; dal 1926 fu professore ordinario alla medesima cattedra. Fu socio nazionale dell’Accademia dei Lincei dal 1946.

Perucca progettò un analizzatore di elettricità a penombra, chiamato comunemente Bilamina di Bravais-Perucca: ad oggi è uno dei migliori strumenti al mondo in precisione. Fu nel 1930 che costruì un tipo di elettrometro, chiamato comunemente “Elettrometro di Perucca”, di altissima sensibilità. Nel 1946 fu preside della facoltà di ingegneria di questo politecnico e dal 1947 al 1955 rettore. In questo periodo determinò e condusse quasi a termine le ricostruzione del politecnico dopo gli eventi bellici.

In un articolo pubblicato nel 1919 sulla rivista Il Nuovo Cimento, Perucca descrisse per la prima volta l’induzione di attività ottica da parte di cristalli di clorato di sodio fatti crescere in una soluzione otticamente inattiva di un colorante triarilmetanico blu sleeve jersey.

L’attività ottica consiste nella capacità di alcuni composti chimici, dovuta all’asimmetria della loro struttura tridimensionale, di provocare una rotazione nel piano della luce polarizzata. Le sostanze dotate di questa proprietà vengono definite chirali dalla parola greca che definisce la mano. Anche le due mani, infatti, pur avendo la stessa forma sono l’una l’immagine speculare dell’altra.

L’articolo di Perucca rappresenterebbe anche il primo resoconto della separazione di una miscela inattiva (racema) di enantiomeri (le due molecole che condividono la stessa formula ma presentano una struttura tridimensionale speculare) ottenuta grazie ad un assorbimento da parte di un cristallo chirale. Questo fenomeno, denominato assorbimento enantioselettivo, è stato confermato sperimentalmente solo negli anni Settanta, senza che ne venisse riconosciuto alcun merito a Perucca.

Solo recentemente il prof. Bart Kahr dell’università di Seattle ha riscoperto le attività nell’ ambito dell’ottica di Perucca[senza fonte].

Sempre nell’ambito delle ricerche e della sperimentazione nell’ottica si ricorda di Eligio Perucca un curioso aneddoto. Ricoprendo dopo la guerra alcune importanti cariche scientifiche istituzionali fu incaricato, come direttore del politecnico, dallo stato italiano di compiere ricerche al fine di determinare se fosse opportuno adottare i fari bianchi sulle vetture ovvero quelli gialli alla francese. Poiché Eligio era uomo dal carattere burbero ed impositivo, raccolse un gruppo di assistenti ed il figlio Antonio (1917-1992), ingegnere meccanico, costringendoli a trascorrere una notte insonne. Prese infatti due proiettori da auto, uno bianco ed uno giallo, montati ciascuno su una vettura. Prese poi un gatto, presumibilmente quello della moglie Teresa, e portò il tutto seguito da figlio e assistenti in una notte nebbiosa d’ inverno all’ autodromo del Valentino a Torino. Proiettando la luce verso gli occhi del gatto nella nebbia si accorse che, allontanando il gatto dalla fonte luminosa, il riflesso della luce bianca negli occhi del gatto era visibile dalla sorgente ad una distanza maggiore che quello della luce gialla clothes shaver. Fu così che in Italia furono adottati i proiettori a luce bianca.

Eligio Perucca fu anche membro del CNR e tra i fondatori dell’INFN.

Erik Hartsuiker

Frederik Klaas Jan (Erik) Hartsuiker (Avereest, 19 oktober 1940) is een voormalige Nederlandse roeier best socks for football. Hij vertegenwoordigde Nederland tweemaal op de Olympische Spelen en won hierbij in totaal één medaille miami football uniforms.

In 1964 maakte hij met zijn olympisch debuut op de Spelen van Tokio op het onderdeel twee met stuurman. De Nederlandse equipe drong hierbij door tot de finale en behaalde hierbij een derde plaats in 8.23,42 achter de Verenigde Staten (8.21,23) en Frankrijk (8.23,15).

Vier jaar later vertegenwoordigde hij Nederland op de Olympische Spelen van Mexico-Stad op het onderdeel vier met stuurman. Het Nederlandse team werd in de eerste serie van de eliminaties tweede in 7.08,15. In de halve finale eindigde ze als zesde in 7.08,68. Op 18 oktober 1968 eindigde ze in de kleine finale (B-finale) als derde in 6.51,77 achter Roemenië (6.46,68) en Argentinië (6.50,54) en werden hierdoor negende overall.

Hartsuiker was in zijn actieve tijd als sportman aangesloten bij de Utrechtse studentenroeivereniging Triton. Hij studeerde rechtswetenschappen en werd later notaris.

Herman Rouwé · Erik Hartsuiker · Jan Just Bos (stuurman)

Herman Rouwé · Erik Hartsuiker · Berend Brummelman · Tom Dronkert · Otto Weekhout (stuurman)

Pavol Dobšinský

Pavol Dobšinský (Slavošovce, 16 marzo 1828 – Drienčany, 22 ottobre 1885) è stato uno scrittore, etnografo e pastore protestante slovacco.

Suo padre era un pastore protestante. Studiò nei licei di Rožňava, Miškovec e, dal 1840, al liceo evangelico di Levoča. Nel 1850 concluse gli studi e sostenne l’esame per il presbiterato evangelico.

Tra il 1848 e il 1849 si era arruolato nell’esercito insurrezionale slovacco e successivamente nell’esercito imperiale. Dal 1850 al 1852 svolse il suo ministero a Levoča come assistente del parroco, che era anche etnografo. Fu così che iniziò a raccogliere documenti della letteratura popolare slovacca. Dal 1852 fu impiegato come vicedirettore del giornale “Slovenské pohľady”, fra il 1858 e il 1861 fu professore di lingua e letteratura slovacca a Banská Štiavnica. Si trasferì poi a Drienčany, di cui fu parroco dal 1861 fanny pack running.

Si sposò due volte: la prima moglie fu Paulína Schmidtová, la seconda fu Adela Medvecká-Čajaková, vedova del poeta Janko Čajak e sorella della poetessa Terézia Vansová.

La sua attività letteraria incominciò nel periodo degli studi a Levoča. Già a quel tempo scriveva poesie, influenzato dalla cerchia di Ľudovít Štúr. Si trattava soprattutto di imitazione di canzoni popolari, di poesie patriottiche e allegoriche. Su diversi giornali pubblicò a puntate traduzioni di Byron, Lamartine e Mickiewicz. Fu direttore dei giornale Holubica e Sokol, recensì gli almanacchi Concordia e Lipa. Come editore pubblicò le opere di Janko Čajak, Ján Botto e Ľudovít Kubáni.

La sua principale attività fu l’etnografia. Già da studente si occupò della problematica della letteratura popolare. Pubblicò sui giornali studi sul folklore e li raccolse nel volume Úvahy o slovenských povestiach (“Riflessioni sui racconti slovacchi”) (1872). Raccoglieva sistematicamente e trascriveva canzoni, proverbi, indovinelli, giochi

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, usi e credenze. Prima di pubblicare questo materiale eliminava particolari erotici e umorismo spinto e grazie a ciò le sue opere, originariamente indirizzate agli adulti, divennero amate e idonee ai piccoli lettori. Con August Horislav Škultéty raccolse 64 fiabe, che pubblicò fra il 1858 e il 1861 in sei quaderni intitolati Slovenské povesti (“Leggende slovacche”). Poco prima della morte pubblicò altre 90 fiabe in otto quaderni intitolate Prostonárodné slovenské povesti (“Leggende popolari slovacche”) (1880 – 1883). Queste raccolte sono opere fondamentali e tuttora rappresentative del folklore slovacco.

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Máquina de coser Singer

La máquina de coser Singer es una de las primeras máquinas de coser de la historia, siendo una versión perfeccionada por Isaac Merritt Singer del modelo de Elias Howe.

Mientras varios inventores habían adoptado el mecanismo del punto de cadeneta de la máquina de coser de Howe, desarrollando algunas innovaciones, Isaac Merrit Singer inventó el mecanismo del movimiento de la aguja hacia arriba y abajo, que era mejor que el de lado a lado. El mecanismo de la aguja era movido por un pedal, en vez de una manivela manual meat tenderizer.

Isaac Singer empezó a fabricar su máquina de coser en 1850 goalie in soccer. Elias Howe lo buscó, informándole que las máquinas que estaba fabricando infringían el uso de una patente que legalmente le pertenecía a él. Como su situación económica era desesperada, le ofreció venderle los derechos por 2000 dólares. Singer rechazó la oferta de una forma sumamente grosera e incluso amenazó físicamente a Howe.

Éste se retiró y habiendo aprendido de sus malas experiencias en Inglaterra con Thomas Saint, regresó al poco tiempo con un nuevo precio socks football, de 25 glass voss water bottle.000 dólares, ya no por los derechos de la patente, sino tan sólo por el derecho a fabricar las máquinas de coser bajo su licencia. Singer y su socio, el abogado Edward Clark, corrieron rudamente al frágil inventor. Así empezó lo que los periódicos de Nueva York llamaron «La Guerra de las Máquinas de Coser». En ese momento, la máquina de coser era algo que ya se veía necesario, ya que se estaba gestando la revolución industrial.

Dheng

Dheng is a village in Bihar, India. It is situated 25 km. away towards west from Sitamarhi on the bank of the Bagmati River, which is connected to the rest of the district center via broad-gauge rail network. It has: at the east side, the Maniyari and Vasant Gachhi Tola; to the west side, Bel, Bengahi and Adamwan; to the north side is Nepal and Jamla; and to the south is Gamhariya and Kharahia tola.

The average height of village from sea level is 75 Meters. There are four temples in the village, two of which are devoted to Lord Krishna and Hanuman. There is one primary school and a high school in the village with library facilities operated by children.

Dheng is the north-most village of India on the border with Nepal team sports uniforms. It happens to be the junction of Sitamarhi-Bairgania road link because river Bagmati which flows through the village separates these two towns. Incumbent Chief Minister of Bihar, Nitish Kumar inaugurated Baghmati road bridge called Banshi-Setu on July 12, 2010. This bridge named after Banshi Shah who sacrificed his life on November 20 used football uniforms, 1997 in the process of putting demand of this very bridge in front of Bihar government. Prior to this, boat was the only source to cross the river for four-wheeler vehicles.

Most of the people are involved in Agriculture and Animal husbandry. Literacy rate of the village is quite low. There is one primary school and a high school in Suppi. The absence of secondary level small scale industry is main cause of poverty and unemployment of the village. A large number of youths works in Delhi, Kolkata and Punjab as migrant labours.

Dheng is connected to phone and electricity. The postal code is 843315 and telephone code is (+91)6226. BSNL and Airtel are two available mobile service providers. The official homepage of Dheng can be found on following link. This is one of the most flood prone villages of Sitamarhi.[citation needed] In older days Dheng Railway Station was situated in this village but later fashion bracelets, because of problems with frequent floods, the station was moved to a nearby village called Barharwa, which is one and half kilometer away from the center of the village.

The most important agricultural products are: Sugarcane, Paddy, Wheat, Lentil, Maize, Pointed gourd, Potato, Banana. Onion. Mango, Milk. There is a big emerging fish market which is popular by countryside.

There are three non-politicalpPublic organizations devoted to overall development of village: Gram Vikas Samiti running fanny pack, Dheng; Nehru Yuva Kendra, Dheng; and Kandeel committee.

Stephen Adams

Stephen Adams (Kumasi, 28 september 1984) is een Ghanees professioneel voetballer die sinds 2009 als doelman actief is voor Aduana Stars.

Adams was actief in de jeugdopleiding van Great Ambassadors en brak door in het Ghanese voetbal als doelman bij Real Sportive. Vanaf 2009 speelt hij voor Aduana Stars en in zijn eerste seizoen haalde de club het eerste landskampioenschap in de clubgeschiedenis binnen.

Adams maakte zijn debuut voor het Ghanees voetbalelftal op 4 januari 2014, toen er met 0–1 werd gewonnen van Namibië. Tijdens het African Championship of Nations 2014 was Adams eerste doelman van Ghana en wisten The Black Stars tweede te worden. Op 1 juni 2014 werd bekend dat de doelman was opgeroepen voor de Ghanese selectie op het WK 2014 in Brazilië.

Bijgewerkt t/m 9 juni 2014

2 Opare · 3 Gyan · 4 Mensah · 5 Sumaila · 6 Muntari&nbsp women’s soccer t shirts;· 7 Atsu · 9 Boateng · 10 A. Ayew · 11 J. Ayew · 12 Waris · 13 Boye · 14 Asamoah · 15 Adomah · 16 Badu · 17 Mubarak · 18 Acquah · 19 Rabiu · 20 Afful · 21 Inkoom · 22 Adams · 23 Dauda · Coach: Appiah

Video Chess-Master

Video Chess-Master ist ein Schachprogramm, welches exklusiv für den Kleincomputer KC 85 erschien.

Bei Video Chess-Master (kurz: VCM) kann der Spieler seine Fähigkeiten im Schach gegen den Computer unter Beweis stellen. Es sind 10 Spielstärken auswählbar. Das Schachbrett wird in 2D, von oben in Farbe dargestellt.

Die Steuerung erfolgt über die Tastatur des KC. Diese ist anschaulich und ausführlich in der Anleitung erklärt.

Anbei die wichtigsten Befehle im Überblick.

Genaue Verkaufszahlen liegen bisher nicht vor, jedoch zitiert eine Website wie folgt:

„Hier gibt es nicht viel zu sagen, außer das diese Kassette C0165 vom VEB MPM chronisch vergriffen war. Das ist um so erstaunlicher da der Betrieb nach dem Zusammenbruch der Handelsverbindungen den Direktversand bzw. Werksverkauf einführte. Und trotzdem war die Nachfrage sehr groß. Was letztlich aber dafür spricht how to soften tough meat, daß das System KC85 gefragter war als dessen Nachfolger, der KC Compact.“

VCM war eines der wenigen kommerziell vertriebenen Computerspiele in der DDR authentic jerseys for sale. Anfangs hatte das Spiel einen EVP von 89,00 M, später wurde der Preis auf 17,80 M gesenkt.

Der Name leitet sich vom CHESS MASTER-Schachcomputer ab used football jerseys. Mehr Informationen im Artikel: Schachcomputer in der DDR. Programmiert wurde es von Wolfgang Pähtz glass travel bottles, einem Onkel von Elisabeth Pähtz.

7 Subway Extension

The 7 Subway Extension is a subway extension of the New York City Subway’s IRT Flushing Line. The extension stretches 1 mile (1.6 km) southwest from its previous terminus at Times Square, at Seventh Avenue and 41st Street, to one new station at 34th Street and Eleventh Avenue. A second station at 10th Avenue and 41st Street was dropped from the plans in October 2007. The entirety of the extension is located within the New York City borough of Manhattan and is served by the 7 local and <7> express services. The extension, a key part of the Hudson Yards Redevelopment Project, is expected to bring business and entertainment into the area, as well as aid redevelopment of nearby Chelsea and Hell’s Kitchen, located around the Long Island Rail Road’s West Side Yard. The extension also serves the nearby Jacob K. Javits Convention Center.

The project was originally proposed in 2005 as part of the Hudson Yards project, which included the failed attempt to build the West Side Stadium for the New York Jets and the city’s bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics. Although the stadium plan was rejected by the state legislature, the rest of the Hudson Yards, including the 7 subway extension plan went forward. Construction on the extension started in 2007.

The extension’s opening was pushed back multiple times from its original target of December 2013. The delays were attributed to a variety of problems, mostly involving the 170-foot-long (52 m) incline elevators that were custom-designed for the new station. The extension finally opened to the public on September 13, 2015.

Proposals to extend the transit system to the Far West Side to support massive redevelopment were floated as early as 1969, when the New York City Planning Commission’s (CPC’s) master plan proposed to expand midtown westward along a 48th Street transit line to replace what the plan described as “blocks of antiquated and deteriorating structures of every sort” between Eighth and Twelfth avenues. That proposal for the West 40s and 50s failed after voters rejected a state bond issue that would have financed the proposed new east-west transit line or “people mover.” Subsequently, attention shifted to the West 30s and the IRT Flushing Line.

In response to the CPC’s 1993 proposal to improve access to the Manhattan Central Business District, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) began exploring the possibility of a 7 extension to New Jersey. In 2001, a business and civic group convened by Senator Charles Schumer argued that a westward extension of the Midtown office district could not be accomplished without a subway extension, saying:

The long blocks along the avenues make the walk as long as 20 minutes to the westernmost parts of the area. In addition, there is no convenient link from Grand Central Station or elsewhere on the east side of Manhattan, making the Far West Side a difficult commute for workers from parts of Manhattan, Queens, Westchester and Connecticut.

An extension of the Flushing Line was then proposed as part of the New York City bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics. The City wanted to get funding before July 2005, at which time the International Olympic Committee would vote on funding. However, due to shortfalls in the MTA’s Capital Program, as well as preexisting funding for the Second Avenue Subway and East Side Access, the MTA could not pay to fund the extension. After a proposal for the West Side Stadium, an Olympic stadium to be located above the nearby West Side Yard, was rejected in 2005, New York City quickly lost their Olympic bid. However, in a report entitled No. 7 Subway Extension – Hudson Yards Rezoning and Development Program, the government of New York City, devised a rezoning plan for the Hudson Yards area and proposed two new subway stations to serve that area. The subway extension was approved following the successful rezoning of about 60 blocks from 28th to 43rd Streets, which became the Hudson Yards neighborhood.

Mayor Michael Bloomberg’s December 12, 2006, address to the New York League of Conservation Voters noted that in November 2006, the government began issuing bonds to fund the extension of the 7 subway to Eleventh Avenue and 34th Street. The $2.4 billion extension was funded with New York City funds from municipal Tax Increment Financing (TIF) bond sales that are expected to be repaid with property tax revenues from future developments in areas served by the extension.

In October 2007, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) awarded a $1.145 billion contract to build 7,000 feet (2,100 m) of twin-tube tunnel from the 7 train’s then-terminus at Times Square to the then-planned shell of the 34th Street–Hudson Yards station. The contract was awarded to S3, a joint venture of J.F. Shea, Skanska USA Civil, and Schiavone. The extension’s construction was overseen by the MTA’s Capital Construction division. Dattner Architects, designed the 34th Street station. After excavating the new terminal’s shell and creating the first 1,000 feet (300 m) of tunnel using the drill-and-blast method, S3 placed two tunnel-boring machines (TBMs) in the ground to dig the remaining 6,000 feet (1,800 m); as it dug, each TBM placed precast concrete liner segments to create the tunnel interior.

Early on in the project, it was announced that the new stations would feature platform screen doors. The stations (along with the new South Ferry station on the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line and the three Phase 1 Second Avenue Subway stations in the Upper East Side) would include special air-cooling systems to reduce the temperature along platforms. Due to its depth, the extension has ventilation towers, rather than the ventilation grates ubiquitous in the rest of the subway system.

However, in October 2007, soon after the announcement of the new extension, the 10th Avenue station was canceled due to an overrun of the $2.4 billion budget, and the MTA did not have an extra $500 million to build the 10th Avenue station. On December 3, 2007, the MTA conducted a ceremony at the Times Square subway station marking the launch of construction of the 7 train extension. The contractor began excavating the station cavern adjacent to the Javits Convention Center. One physical hindrance to the construction of the extension was the lower-level platform at 42nd Street–Port Authority Bus Terminal on the IND Eighth Avenue Line. The abandoned platform was partially razed to allow the 7 train extension to be built. In order for the TBMs to meet up with the then existing lay-up tracks west of Times Square, the Eighth Avenue Line had to be underpinned to support the existing line.

In June 2008, construction on the tunnels began along Eleventh Avenue in Manhattan. In February 2009, S3 lowered the first of two tunnel-boring machines into a giant shaft at the corner of 25th Street and Eleventh Avenue. The two boring machines dug parallel 7,100-foot (2,200 m) long tunnels north along Eleventh Avenue to the current terminus of the 7 service at 41st Street and Times Square. The MTA posted a construction update with photographs on its website in November 2008, showing substantial progress.

The MTA completed excavation of a 150-foot (46 m) long cavern in June 2009. The cavern was dug below the bus entrance ramp to the lower level of the Port Authority Bus Terminal and formed part of the eastern end of the new extension and connected it to the Times Square station. At the same time, tunnels were being dug northward from the machine shaft at 26th Street; soft ground at 27th and 28th Street required 300 feet (91 m) of ground to be frozen so that the tunnel-boring machines could easily dig through the soil. On December 21, 2009, it was announced that a tunnel-boring machine broke through the 34th Street station cavern wall. Both tunnel-boring machines were scheduled to finish the required tunneling in the spring of 2010 buy water glass.

In June 2010, one of the TBMs completed its tunnel at the cavern. The second TBM broke through the wall of the cavern on July 15, 2010, completing its tunneling operation. The TBMs were partially disassembled and backed up to the 25th Street shaft, where they were lifted out. In April 2011, the MTA announced that the contract covering the tunnels, the 34th Street station mezzanine and passenger platform was 85% complete, and that the systems contract, covering mechanical and electrical systems, electric power, lighting and train tracks would be awarded by July 2011. A second entrance to the station is planned. In May 2012, the MTA announced that the extension, now 65% complete, had received the installation of the first set of rails.

On August 21, 2013, the MTA announced that the 7 Subway Extension was 90% complete. On December 20, 2013, Mayor Michael Bloomberg took a ceremonial ride on a train to the new terminal, celebrating a part of his legacy as Mayor; at the time, the proposed opening date was June 2014.

Soon after Bloomberg’s ceremonial ride, the opening date of the subway extension was pushed back from June to early fall 2014, then to November 2014, then to February 2015, and then to May 2015. Most of the problems were attributed to the incline elevators being installed in the station, and to the ventilation fans along the tunnel.

On October 1, 2014, the MTA told the New York Daily News that the agency had signed a new agreement with the prime contractor, offering up to $4.75 million in incentive payments if the new station was finished and ready to open to the public by February 24, 2015.

Just two and a half months later, though, the MTA stated that it was unable to open the subway extension for service until April to July 2015, due to the failure to get the inclined elevators to work properly. Problems with the security and fire alarm systems were also blamed for the delays. A December 2014 New York Post article attributed the delay to Hudson Yards’ developer, The Related Companies’, need to dig caissons for the foundations, just above the subway station, and the foundation work needed to be complete before the MTA could open the station. Continuing trouble with the fire and security alarms in March 2015 would delay the opening until summer.

The use of inclined elevators was intended to provide wheelchair-bound patrons with a shorter, easier path to the train platform, as well as to reduce tunneling costs. The two elevators were manufactured by Maspero Elevatori, in Appiano Gentile, Italy, using a controller made on Long Island, speed governors made in Ohio, and buttons and other parts in Queens. The software for the elevator was written in the United States. Maspero Elevatori assembled the elevators in Italy, and they failed an operational test there, prior to being shipped to the United States. The MTA said the manufacturer chose to use American subcontractors in place of local Italian suppliers after reading the specifications the transit agency submitted. The MTA had been working with the manufacturer to try to resolve the problems caused by a very high level of customization.

On June 1, 2015, a representative for the MTA described the extension as “99% complete”. That day, test runs of 7 trains started running to 34th Street–Hudson Yards in preparation for the summer 2015 opening of the extension. However, on June 15, the extension was pushed back again to “before the end of the third quarter”. On July 20, 2015, it was reported that the MTA planned to open the extension to the public on September 13, 2015. The opening date was confirmed on August 28, 2015. The station was opened at a ribbon-cutting ceremony on September 13 at about 1 p.m.

Digging the station cavern

Construction Site P, 11th Avenue and 33rd Street in May 2010

Extension work during night time

Tunnel under construction as of January 26, 2012

Mezzanine and trackways under construction

Tunnel portals at end of station cavern

Building tracks connecting Times Square to the line extension in March 2012

Tunnel progress in September 2012

Ventilation structure at 11th Avenue and 36th Street, near construction site K

Tunnel on the 7 Subway Extension, under construction

Tracks in the station, April 2013

Extension, as viewed from Times Square on November 25, 2013. The fake wall has been removed

Station entrance under construction in May 2014

Rendering of Site A building between 25th and 26th Street, June 2013

The 34th Street–Hudson Yards station is at the intersection of 11th Avenue and 34th Street. It is the only station on the extension, and it opened on September 13, 2015. The MTA says that the new station will “make it possible for new housing, restaurants and entertainment to grow” in the surrounding neighborhoods, including Hell’s Kitchen and Chelsea. The station is also close to the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center.

Passenger access to the station includes a pair of incline elevators. The project has been plagued by delays because of the mishaps involved in the installation of the custom-made elevators. In June 2012, the extension’s opening was delayed to June 2014, with the rest of the 34th Street–Hudson Yards station to open at the end of 2015; As of December 15, 2014, the opening date was changed to mid-2015. In April 2014, the first of the 170-foot-long (52&nbsp

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;m) incline elevators was installed in the station. The 80-foot (24 m) high incline elevators are the first of their kind in the system. The station is the third station in the New York City Subway to have low vibration tracks installed. These tracks provide a smoother, quieter ride for passengers, and eliminate the need for wooden track blocks.

The extension contains five street-level structures:

Although a new station at 10th Avenue and 41st Street was part of the original plan, the intermediate station was eliminated in October 2007 due to cost overruns, leaving the terminal station at Eleventh Avenue and 34th Street as the only new station on the extension. The MTA indicated that the 10th Avenue station could be included in the project if funding were found. The station was not included in the original (2007) contract award, but was listed as a $450 million option. In late December 2007, reports indicated that the postponed station might be partially built if the City of New York and the MTA agreed on the additional financing for the station shell. In February 2009, the MTA announced that it would build the station if the agency received sufficient funds from the federal economic stimulus package. In June 2010, the city announced it was seeking funding to assess the feasibility of constructing the station at a later date using a two-platform, two-entrance model without an underground connecting passage.

In 2010, The New York Times reported that Mayor Michael Bloomberg’s administration had been considering an extension to Hoboken and to Secaucus Junction in New Jersey, where it would connect with most New Jersey Transit commuter lines. It would offer New Jersey commuters a direct route to Grand Central Terminal on the East Side of Manhattan and connections to most other New York City subway routes. If opened, the extension would take the New York City Subway outside the state’s borders for the first time. The plan would replace the Access to the Region’s Core (ARC) tunnel, which was canceled by New Jersey Governor Chris Christie in October 2010.

A subway extension to New Jersey would cost less than the canceled ARC tunnel, as it would start at 34th Street–Hudson Yards and go west, avoiding the expensive tunnel boring work east to Herald Square and the complex station deep underground there. However, travel times into Manhattan might be longer than under the original ARC proposal, because riders would need to transfer to the subway from New Jersey Transit trains at Secaucus. Additionally, because NJT trains would continue to or from Penn Station, the key goal of reduced tunnel congestion between New Jersey and New York would not be achieved. On the other hand, New Jersey Governor Christie said, “It would actually connect us to the east side of Manhattan, like we always wanted to…” Bloomberg had yet to meet with New York Governor-elect Andrew Cuomo and the project, which could require five additional years to develop, would not be automatically entitled to the federal funding allotted to the ARC tunnel. Christie and the Port Authority supported the plan, agreeing to split the estimated US$10 billion cost if it is officially approved. On February 2, 2011, the city’s Economic Development Corporation voted to budget up to $250,000 for a feasibility study into the proposed New Jersey extension, which was carried out by engineering firm Parsons Brinckerhoff.

Amtrak’s February 2011 announcement of the Gateway Project includes a proposal to extend the 7 service three blocks east of Eleventh Avenue to New York Penn Station, instead of five miles west to Secaucus. Gateway, under auspices of Amtrak, would include a high-speed rail right-of way from Newark Penn to New York Penn and provide more capacity on New Jersey Transit rail operations. Congress allocated $15 million for studies for the project in November 2011, with the likelihood that the two projects, Gateway and the subway extension, will be in competition for funding.

In April 2012, citing budget considerations, the director of the MTA, Joe Lhota, said that it was doubtful the extension would be built in the foreseeable future, suggesting that the Gateway Project was a much more likely solution to congestion at Hudson River crossings. However, the Parsons Brinckerhoff feasibility study, which was released in April 2013, revived hope for the project, with Mayor Bloomberg saying, “Extending the 7 train to Secaucus is a promising potential solution … and is deserving of serious consideration.” The study investigated the possible effects of the construction of the infill station at 10th Avenue, tunnels running along the path of the ARC tunnel, and a multi-level multi-modal addition to Secaucus Junction. A widening of the right-of way of the Northeast Corridor was considered.

In a November 2013 Daily News opinion article, the president of the Real Estate Board of New York and the chairman of Edison Properties called for the line to be extended to Secaucus in tunnels to be shared with the Gateway Project. Later in November 2013 the New Jersey Assembly passed a Resolution 168 supporting the extension of the line to Hoboken and Secaucus.

The replacement of the Port Authority Bus Terminal in Midtown Manhattan is a planned project of the Port Authority. An alternative would include a new terminal at Secaucus Junction in conduction with the 7 extension.

The New York State Society of Professional Engineers awarded the first construction phase, “Running Tunnels and Underground Structures,” its 2013 Construction Project of the Year. According to the society, the project team won the award “for outstanding professional engineering efforts in developing creative solutions and innovative technologies in construction of an infrastructure project. The No. 7 project used the first double-shielded tunnel boring machines (TBMs) to tunnel under New York City while placing precast concrete segments to form the tunnels’ walls. For the first time in the world, a ground freezing method was used to harden soil to act as rock to allow TBMs to maintain proper course while boring and placing the tunnel liners.” While the extension extends 1 mile (1.6 km), the tunnels are actually 1.5 miles (2 enzymes in meat tenderizer.4 km) long.

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