Tantra

Tantra (sanskrit तन्त्र tantra “væv” eller “lære”) eller tantrisme er en betegnelse for flere religiøst-esoteriske traditioner med rod i Indiens religioner. Forenklet sagt er tantra simpelthen indisk okkultisme med ikke så få paralleller til vestlig okkultisme.[Kilde mangler]

Tantra findes såvel i hinduismen som i bönpo, buddhismen og jainismen. Blandt de fænomener, der normalt går igen i de forskellige tantriske versioner, er troen på mantraer (magiske navne og lyde), yantraer (magiske diagrammer) og mandalaer (omfattende magiske diagrammer, der afbilder hele det spirituelle kosmos).

Grundtanken i tantra er, at påkalde en kraft i naturen (ofte kaldet Shakti) og tøjle og bruge denne kraft via esoteriske teknikker, som kun den indviede tantriske mester og lærer – den såkaldte guru – kender i deres fulde udstrækning. Formålet kan bl.a. være at effektuere sine personlige ønsker via ritualerne og overnaturlige kræfter – såkaldt rituel magi, herunder de såkaldte siddhier, som menes opstået ved meditation. Eller målet kan være via de tantriske øvelser at “brænde karma af” for dermed hurtigere at nå den hinduistiske forløsning (moksha) ud af den fysiske virkelighed.

Tantra har i sine forskellige former eksisteret i Indien, Kina, Japan, Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan best water bottle for sports, Sri Lanka, Korea, Cambodia, Burma, Indonesien og Mongoliet.

Religionsforskeren David Gordon White foreslår følgende meget tantra-velvillige definition:

En tantra betegner endvidere traditionelt en tekst, der omhandler religiøse emner.

Både traditionelt og i moderne tid er begrebet desuden blevet brugt om spirituelle praksisser, der forener seksualitet og spiritualitet.

Buddhistisk tantra adskiller sig fra ovenstående forklaring. I buddhistisk tantra arbejdes med analyse af alle opståede fænomener for derigennem at indse en manglende dualisme mellem subjekt og objekt (den, der ser og det, der ses). I buddhismen er der ingen guddom eller guddommelig energi. Til buddhistisk tantra eksisterer nogle forklarende tekster og ritualer, der alle er med til at udvikle den praktiserendes forståelse af sindets grundlæggende natur. Mantraer bruges til at skabe forbindelse til det erkendte sind best soccer team uniforms, men er på ingen måde magiske, da der ikke eksisterer sand magi ifølge de buddhistiske belæringer. På samme måde bruges yantraer. De repræsenterer egenskaber i det erkendte sind.

Gustav Kirchhoff

Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (født 12. mars 1824 i Königsberg, død 17. oktober 1887 i Berlin) var en tysk fysiker. Han ga flere bidrag av fundamental betydning for moderne naturvitenskap. Hans elektriske lover benyttes i all moderne elektroteknikk og elektronikk, mens hans innføring av spektroskopiske metoder gjør det mulig å utforske alt fra atomer i materialer til stjerner og galakser i Universet. Sammen med sin kollega Robert Bunsen oppdaget han på denne måten de to nye grunnstoffene cesium og rubidium. Et annet resultat av de samme studiene var formuleringen av Kirchhoffs strålingslov for varmestråling og dens sammenheng med sorte legemer. Han bidro også til utvikling av termodynamikk for kjemiske reaksjoner og viste hvordan diffraksjon av lys kan forklares matematisk direkte fra Maxwells ligninger for elektromagnetiske bølger. Gjennom sin undervisning og lærebøker bidro han til å bygge opp en sterk tradisjon innen teoretisk fysikk i Tyskland på slutten av det 19. århundret.

Etter å ha gjort seg ferdig med sin gymnasutdannelse i 1842, begynte Kirchhoff samme år studier i matematikk ved Universitet i Köningsberg. Her kunne han delta i det berømte matematisk-fysiske seminaret til Jacob Jacobi og Franz Ernst Neumann. Spesielt hadde Neumann en sterk innflytele på den unge Kirchhoff og fikk han mer interessert i fysikk enn ren matematikk. Det var også under dennes inspirasjon han skrev sitt første vitenskapelige arbeid om elektriske kretser. Kirchhoff mottok sin doktorgrad der i 1847 og habiliterte seg i Berlin året etter. Han ble da Privatdozent slik at han hadde lov til å forelese.

Etter å ha undervist i Berlin i to år, fikk Kirchhoff i 1850 en fast stilling i Breslau som professor extraordinarius i fysikk. Der ble året etter også kjemikeren Robert Bunsen ansatt og tok opp et tett samarbeid med Kirchhoff. De ble gode venner slik at da Bunsen i 1852 ble tilbudt en ny stilling i Heidelberg goalie uniform soccer, så anstrengte han seg for å få Kirchhoff med seg. Det lyktes i 1854 da det ble en ledig stilling der og Kirchhoff ble ansatt som professor ordinarius (full professor) og leder for fysikklaboratoriet. Han giftet seg i 1857 med Clara Richelot som var datter til Friedrich Richelot som i 1843 hadde overtatt professoratet i Königsberg etter Jacobi og vært Kirchhoffs lærer i matematikk. De fikk i alt fem barn. I 1857 ble også Hermann von Helmholtz ansatt i Heidelberg, noe som gjorde universitetet til et av de ledende innen naturvitenskap i hele Europa.

Bunsen var kjemiker og hadde sammen med en assistent utviklet bunsenbrenneren. Denne brukte han til å studere fargene til flammene fra forskjellige kjemiske element. Kirchhoff forslo å studere disse med et prismespektroskop hvor det fikk frem tydelige spektrallinjer som tilsvarte Fraunhoferlinjer i spekteret fra Solen. På den måten hadde de i 1859 sammen skapt begynnelsen til moderne spektralanalyse. De samme undersøkelsene fikk også Kirchhoff til å formulere sin lov for sort stråling som førti år senere ble fullført med Plancks strålingsformel. Disse oppdagelsene medførte at han i 1861 ble innvalgt som korresponderende medlem av Det prøyssiske vitenskapsakademiet i Berlin.

Disse årene i Heidelberg var kanske hans mest lykkelige og produktive i hele hans forskningskarriere. Sammen med Bunsen og Helmholtz var han midtpunkt i et rikt sosialt og kulturelt liv som satte sitt preg på byen. Ved siden av sin faste undervisning fortsatte han sitt arbeid med spektralanalyse, men tok etter hvert også opp studier av elastisitetsteori og hydrodynamikk. Men i 1866 ble hans innsats redusert etter et fall i en trapp som var så alvorlig at han ble avhengig av både rullestol og krykker de følgende årene. Situasjonen ble ikke bedre etter at hans kone døde i 1869 og han fikk aleneansvaret for de fem barna deres. I tillegg hadde han pådratt seg en øyenlidelse som sannsynligvis skyldes overanstrengelse ved observasjoner av svake spektrallinjer. Men på en klinikk hvor han søkte behandling, traff han Luise Brömmel som han giftet seg med i 1872.

Flere andre universiteter prøvde å få Kirchhoff ansatt. Men han trivdes så godt i Heidelberg at han avslo alle tilbud. Men etter hvert ble vanskelighetene med å bevege seg så store at han måtte slutte sine eksperimentelle arbeider. Så da Universitetet i Berlin i 1874 kunne tilby han en stilling som professor i matematisk fysikk, takket han ja. Samme år ble også Kirchhoff utnevnt til fullt medlem av Vitenskapsakademiet med lønn. Dette skyldes delvis også at Helmholtz hadde begynt der i 1870. Berlin var da blitt hovedstad i et forent Tyskland og universitet hadde store planer om å bli det ledende i landet. Den nyopprettete stillingen var det første professoratet i teoretisk fysikk i Berlin. Tidligere var fysikk alltid forbundet med en eksperimentell aktivitet.

Selv om Kirchhoff engasjerte seg på mange fronter i Berlin, ble livet i storbyen delvis en nedtur. Han måtte føre et stillere liv og hans kone trivdes ikke. Det var i denne perioden Kirchhoff konsentrerte seg om sin undervisning som etter hvert ble utgitt i fire bind som Vorlesungen über mathematische Physik. De fikk stor betydning for kommende generasjoner av studenter. Fra 1880 fikk han stadig større problemer med sin helse og måtte i 1884 innstille forelesningene og si fra seg valget til rektor ved universitetet. På tross av flere følgende kuropphold ble han ikke mye bedre og døde i 1887.

Kirchhoff er begravet på Alter St.-Matthäus-Kirchhof i Berlin, ikke langt unna graven til matematiker Leopold Kronecker. Litt lengre unna ligger også graven til Heinrich Rubens som gjorde de avgjørende målingene på varmestråling som førte Max Planck i 1900 til den endelige forståelse av hva Kirchhoff hadde påbegynt.

Kirchoff begynte å studere matematikk ved universitetet i Königsberg, men skiftet raskt sin interesse mot mer praktiske problem han lærte om i fysikk. Dette skyldes i stor grad hans lærer Franz Neumann som på den tiden arbeidet med å forstå elektriske og magnetiske fenomen. Hans første, vitenskapelige arbeider handler også om elektriske strømmer og spenninger. I denne forbindelsen utførte han også målinger for å bekrefte sine beregninger. Denne koblingen mellom teoretiske og eksperimentelle problemstillinger, skulle karakterisere resten av Kirchhoffs vitenskapelige virke. Men de viste også at han forble en matematiker av første rang.

Georg Ohm hadde i 1827 beregnet strømmen i en lang ledning som var koblet til polene på en spenningskilde og dermed utledet Ohms lov for sammenheng mellom strøm og spenning i en slik enkel, elektrisk krets. Da Kirchhoff i 1845 var en 21 år gammel student, publiserte han en mye mer komplisert beregning for hvordan den elektriske strømmen fordeler seg i en metallskive som er tilkoblet forskjellige, eksterne strømskilder. Han generaliserte Ohms lov ved å si at strømmen alltid må være proporsjonal med gradienten til spenningen. Da strømmen er stasjonær, må den ha null divergens. Bortsett fra i tilkoblingspunktene, vil derfor spenningen overalt i platen oppfylle Laplaces ligning. Kirchhoff kunne løse denne for et vilkårlig antall slike kontaktpunkt.

I det enkleste tilfellet betraktet han en sirkulær skive med to kontaktpunkt på omkretsen. Gjennom det ene kommer det like mye strøm inn som det går ut gjennom det andre. Gjennom skiven fordeler strømmen seg slik at den overalt har en retning som er vinkelrett på linjer med samme potensial. Disse viste Kirchhoff ville være deler av sirkelbuer. Da ingen strøm kan gå ut gjennom omkretsen til sirkelen, må disse buene stå vinkelrett på denne.

Etter å ha beregnet det elektriske potensialet i hvert punkt på skiven, viser Kirchhoff i det samme arbeidet hvordan resultatet kan veriferes ved direkte målinger. Da potensialforskjellene er små og derfor vanskelig å måle, foreslo han enkel oppstilling av apparatur og ledninger som kan gi bedre nøyaktighet. Det er i forbindelse med denne eksperimentelle oppstillingen som tilsvarer en Wheatstone-bro, at han beviste hvordan strøm og spenning kan beregnes i en slik mer komplisert, elektrisk krets. Et punkt i kretsen hvor flere ledninger møtes, kalles vanligvis for et knutepunkt eller node. I et slikt punkt må like mye strøm gå inn som ut igjen. Dette er Kirchhoffs strømlov. Den kan uttrykkes på en annen måte ved å regne alle inngående strømmer Ik som positive og utgående som negative water bottle insulator. Da vil summen av alle strømmene som møtes i en node, være null slik at

Kirchhoffs spenningslov kommer frem ved å betrakte en lukket sløyfe i dette nettverket. Den går da gjennom et visst antall noder som hver har en viss spenning. Kalles spenningsforskjellen mellom to nærliggende noder på sløyfen for Uk, så må summen av alle disse rundt sløyfen være null slik at

Dette følger direkte fra definisjonen, men er mer grunnleggende en konsekvens av at energien til en elektrisk ladning som går rundt sløyfen, forblir uforandret.

Målingene til Kirchhoff ga god overenstemmelse med hans matematiske resultat. Året etter foreslo han en annen, eksperimentell undersøkelse av strømfordelingen i skiven. Etter å ha beregnet hvordan denne ville gi utslag på en kompassnål som ble holdt over skiven i forskjellige posisjoner, gjenomførte han også disse målingene og fant igjen at de stemte med hans teoretiske utledninger.

Da Kirchhoff kom til Berlin i 1848, hadde han fattet interesse for å forstå Chladnis klangfigurer som han hadde hørt om i Königsberg. Disse figurene kommer frem når fin sand strøs på en plate som utsettes for svingninger, for eksempel fra et musikalsk instrument. Sanden vil da ordne seg i et bestemt mønster som avhenger av hvordan platen holdes fast og hvordan den blir satt til å vibrerere. Napoleon hadde i sin tid utlovet en belønning til den som kunne komme med en vitenskapelig forklaring. Etter mye diskusjon, ble prisen gitt til den franske matematiker Sophie Germain som ga den første, matematiske beskrivelse av fenomenet. Hennes resultat ble i de følgende årene forbedret av Lagrange, mens Poisson og andre prøvde å løse de nye ligningene som derved ble etablert. Da det på den tiden ikke fantes en helhetlig teori for elastiske deformasjoner, forble situasjonen likevel uklar.

Det var først da Kirchhoff i 1850 publiserte sitt matematiske arbeid om svingninger av tynne plater, at dette problemet fikk en konsistent beskrivelse. Spesielt viste han hvor viktig det var å gi grensebetingelsene på platens rand en korrekt behandling. Han hadde selv planer om å gjøre eksperimenter for å teste sine nye beregninger, men så langt kom han ikke. Denne delen av elastisk teori bærer i dag Kirchhoffs navn best water bottle for sports.

I Heidelberg tok Kirchhoff først opp igjen det teoretiske arbeide med å undersøke hvordan strømmer og spenninger kunne spre seg langs en elektrisk ledning. Dette var blitt viktig å forstå i forbindelse med kablene som på den tiden ble lagt gjennom verdenshavene for å telegrafere. Noen få år tidligere var dette problemet blitt studert av William Thomson. Ved å ta hensyn til induksjon viste Kirchhoff i 1857 at man måtte forvente en utbredelseshastighet som var tett opp til lyshastigheten. Dette var et overraskende resultat som først ble forstått vel ti år senere da Maxwell viste at det var en direkte konsekvens av hans elektromagnetiske ligninger som inneholdt en forskyvningsstrøm.

På den tiden var hans kollega Bunsen opptatt med å benytte sin nylig utviklete bunsenbrenner til å studere forskjellige, kjemiske forbindelser. Denne brenneren var konstruert slik at den kan en flamme med høy temperatur, men liten lysstyrke cool cheap socks. Ved å plassere et stoff i flammen, vil den da lyse med en typisk farge som kunne brukes til å bestemme hva stoffet besto av.

Kirchhoff foreslo at en mer nøyaktig bestemmelse av den kjemiske sammensetningen ville være mulig hvis man analyserte lyset med et spektrometer. Sammen med den samme assistenten som hadde vært med å konstruere bunsenbrenneren, fikk de bygd deres første med et prisme som splittet lyset i linjer og band med forskjellige farger. For nesten alle stoff de plasserte i flammen, opptrådde den gule D-linjen fra natrium. Ofte skyldes det en liten forurensning av det analyserte stoffet. Den hadde fått sitt navn fra den tilsvarende Fraunhoferlinjen i solspektret.

Ved å ha natrium i brenneren samtidig som man slapp sollys gjennom spektroskopet, forventet de at den mørke D-linjen i solspektret ville forsvinne på grunn av lyset som ble sendt ut fra flammen. Men i stedet ble linjen enda mørkere. Dette var en total overraskelse for Kirchhoff. Men han kom raskt til den forklaringen at natriumet i flammen også kunne absorberere det samme, gule lyset som det emitterte. Han verifiserte denne antagelsen ved å erstatte sollyset med en annen lyskilde uten noen D-linje i utgangspunktet. Ble det sendt gjennom natriumflammen, fremkom igjen en mørk absorbsjonslinje i spektroskopet på samme sted som D-linjen.

Denne oppdagelsen betydde at det på Solen måtte finnes natrium. Tilsvarende måtte de andre Fraunhoferlinjene skyldes element man kunne bestemme ved å sammenligne med spektra i laboratoriet. På den måten kunne man finne ut hva både Solen og andre stjerner besto av. Kirchhoff skrev sammen en slik konklusjon og sendte den til Vitenskapsakademiet i Berlin. Der ble oppdagelsen fremført den 27. oktober, 1859. Denne dato kan da regnes som fødselsdagen for moderne spektroskopi.

Bunsen og Kirchhoff publiserte sine første oppdagelser året etterpå. Snart skaffet de seg et større og mer nøyaktig spektroskop som kunne fremvise flere og svakere spektrallinjer. Hvert grunnstoff hadde sitt karakteristiske spektrum. Ved å analysere på denne måten forskjellige jord og vannprøver fra omegnen, oppdaget de også de to nye alkalimetallene cesium og rubidium. I de følgende årene benyttet de denne nye spektralanalysen til å kartlegge spektrene til et stort antall kjemiske grunnstoff.

Allerede om høsten 1859 da de skjønte at de mørke absorbsjonslinjene i solspektret tilsvarte tilsvarende emisjonslinjer for forskjellige grunnstoff, begynte Kirchhoff å tenke grundigere igjennom hva dette kunne bety. På den tiden fantes det ingen atomær forståelse av disse prosessene. Det kom først med Bohrs atommodell vel femti år senere. Men denne oppdagelsen viste at det måtte eksistere en direkte sammenheng mellom et stoffs evne til å sende ut stråling med en bestemt bølgelengde og dets evne til å absorbere stråling med den samme bølgelengden. Desto sterkere et legeme kan absorbere en bestemt stråling, desto kraftigere vil den emittere denne strålingen. Dette måtte også gjelde for varmestråling som var antatt å være som lys, men med lengre bølgelenger. Hvilke bølgelenger som opptrådde, avhang av temperaturen til stoffet eller legemet som sender ut strålingen. Ved romtemperatur sender ingen stoff ut synlig lys. Men varmes det opp til flere tusen grader, begynner det å lyse.

Kirchhoff definerte en emisjonsfunksjon E(T)  som sier hvor mye stråling et legeme av typen i  sender ut med bølgelengde λ  og temperatur T. Likedan innførte han en absorpsjonskoeffisient a(T)  som sier hvor stor del av den innkommende strålingen dette legemet absorberer for denne bølgelengde og temperatur. Disse funksjonene er forskjellige fra stoff til stoff. Men ved bruk av termodynamiske argument, kom han frem til at forholdet

er uavhengig av stoffets egenskaper og er en universell funksjon. Dette er Kirchhoffs strålingslov. Den nye funksjonen Bλ(T) beskriver egenskaper ved selve strålingen og ble snart omtalt som Kirchhoffs funksjon. Han gjorde ikke selv noe forsøk på å beregne den. Mange andre prøvde dette i årene som fulgte, men det lyktes først for Max Planck i 1900. Hans strålingsformel representerte begynnelsen til den nye kvantefysikken.

Etter å ha presentert dette i en kort innberetning til Videnskapsselskapet i Berlin, skrev Kirchhoff noen måneder senere en mer utfyllende artikkel om disse egenskapene ved varmestrålingen. Her påpekte han også at man kan tenke seg et svart legeme som absorberer all stråling 100%. Det vil si at for alle bølgelengder fra varmestråling til ultraviolett lys vil det ha en absorpsjonskoeffisienten aλ(T) = 1. Emisjonen Eλ(T)  fra et slikt svart legeme er derfor gitt ved den universelle funksjonen Bλ(T). Da alle andre stoff har a(T) ≤ 1, betyr det at Ikke noe legeme kan emittere mer stråling enn et svart legeme.

Etter at Kirchhoff hadde flyttet til Berlin, inntok etter hvert undervisningen en stadig større del av hans virke. Forskningsmessig bidro han likevel med flere viktige arbeid. Av disse fikk spesielt hans matematisk utledning av Huygens’ prinsipp for bevegelse av lys i optikken stor betydning. Huygens hadde foreslått at dette skjedde ved at hvert punkt på en bølgefront kunne sende ut nye bølger som kun beveget seg fremover. Adskillig mange år senere kunne Fresnel forbedre dette prinsippet slik at han kunne forklare en stor mengde forskjellige, optiske fenomen. Men det var uklart hvorfor denne beskrivelsen fungerte så godt da det var klart at punktene på en lysfront ikke kunne være fysiske kilder for nye bølger.

Denne vanskeligheten ble først tatt opp av Helmholtz i 1860 mens han ennå var i Heidelberg. Sannsynligvis var det da Kirchhoff fattet interesse for problemet. I 1882 kunne han så vise at ved å løse Maxwells ligninger ved hjelp av det ny-utviklete Greens teorem, ville lyset i laveste approksimasjon bevege seg på den måten Huygens og Fresnel hadde antatt. Dette arbeidet skulle i årene som fulgte danne grunnlaget for stadig mer nøyaktige beregninger innen optikken og for utbredelse av annen stråling.

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Irvington, New York

Irvington, sometimes known as Irvington-on-Hudson, is an affluent suburban village in the town of Greenburgh in Westchester County, New York, United States. It is located on the eastern bank of the Hudson River, 20 miles (32 km) north of midtown Manhattan in New York City, and is served by a station stop on the Metro-North Hudson Line. To the north of Irvington is the village of Tarrytown, to the south the village of Dobbs Ferry, and to the east unincorporated parts of Greenburgh, including East Irvington. Irvington includes within its boundaries the community of Ardsley-on-Hudson, which has its own ZIP code and Metro-North station, but which should not be confused with the nearby village of Ardsley, New York.

The population of Irvington at the 2010 census was 6,420. Because many of Irvington’s residents – especially those in the upper income brackets – live in Irvington and work in New York City, the village has a reputation as a “commuter town” or a “bedroom community”.

The village’s Main Street area has been designated an historic district by New York State and on January 15, 2014 was added to the National Register of Historic Places. In 2010, Westchester Magazine ranked Irvington as the “Best Place to Live in Westchester”.

Before the area where Irvington is now located was settled by Europeans, it was inhabited by the Wickquasgeck Indians, a band of the Wappingers, related to the Lenape (Delaware) tribes which dominated lower New York state and New Jersey. The Wickquasgeck still lived in the area as late as 1775.

After the Dutch came to the area, the land was part of the Bisightick tract of the Van der Donck grant, which was purchsed by Frederick Philipse in 1682, after the British had taken over the area in 1664. At first it was settled by tenant farmers, and but by the 1700s, most of the settlers were artisans. The King’s Highway, which connected New York City with Albany, was built through the settlement by the 1720s, which created a need for inns and taverns. In 1785, the state of New York confiscated the Phillipse’s land from his grandson, Frederick Philipse III, after he sided with the British in the American Revolution, and sold it to local patriot farmers who had been tenants of the Phillipse family. This is presumably how part of it came to be the farm of William Dutcher. Dutcher sold half of his farm to Justus Dearman in 1817, who then sold it to Gustavo F. Sacchi in 1848 for $26,000. Sacchi sold the parcel to John Jay – the grandson of the American Founding Father by the same name – that same year, and Jay laid it out as a village which he called “Dearman”, after Justus Dearman, and sold lots at auction in New York City starting on April 25, 1850.

The organization of the streets into a right-angled grid pattern was criticized by Andrew Jackson Downing, who was at the time the foremost expert on landscape design. Downing condemned the use of the street grid outside of cities and saw the hilly and heavily wooded site of Dearman as particularly suited to his own theories, which called for curvilinear roads and irregular lots which followed the contours of the land. With the frequent steamboat, stagecoach, and train transportation available, he felt that Dearman could have been an ideal suburb, instead of “mere rows of houses upon streets crossing each other at right angles and bordered with shade trees”.

The side streets off the village’s Main Street – or “Main Avenue”, as an 1868 map has it – were originally designated “A”, “B”, “C”, and so forth, but are today named after many of the area’s early settlers, such as Barent and William Dutcher, Captain John Buckhout (who lived to 103) and Wolfert Ecker (or “Acker”).

Wolfert Ecker’s house, then owned by Jacob van Tassel, was burned by the British in the Revolutionary War because it had become a notorious hang-out for American patriots. Washington Irving later wrote about it under the name of “Wolfert’s Roost” (“roost” meaning “rest”), and purchased and re-modeled another house on the land to become “Sunnyside”. Another early settler was Capt. Jan Harnse, and the Harnse-Conklin-Odell Tavern on Broadway was built in 1693 and became an inn in 1743. (See below) It was at Odell’s Tavern that the Committee of Safety, the executive committee of the legislature of the new State of New York, officially received the news that George Washington had lost the Battle of Long Island, and, later, British troops camped nearby, putting Jonathan Odell into custody in the Old Dutch Church in Tarrytown. No major battles of the Revolutionary War were fought in the area, only minor skirmishes between residents and soldiers.

With the capture of New York City by the British, Irvington and the rest of southern Westchester County became the “Neutral ground”, an unofficial 30-mile (48 km) wide zone separating British-occupied territory from that held by the Americans, and the people of the area who remained – many of the Patriot population had fled – traded with both sides to great profit. However, there was also a great deal of pillaging and plundering, even of Tory households, both by the regular British army and loyalist militias and irregulars, all in the name of hunting down rebels. By the time the war was over, the countryside had been ravaged:

The country is rich and fertile, and the farms appear to have been advantageously cultivated, but it now has the marks of a country in ruins, a large portion of the proprietors having abandoned their homes. On the high road where heretofore was a continuous stream of travelers and vehicles, not a single traveler was seen from week to week, month to month. The countryside was silent. The very tracks of the carriages were grown over with grass or weeds. Travelers walked along bypaths. The villages are abandoned, the residents having fled to the north, leaving their homes, where possible, in charge of elder persons and servants.

Eventually, the area recovered and continued to develop. The Hudson River Railroad reached the settlement on September 29, 1849; the first passengers on a regularly scheduled run through the village paid fifty cents to travel from Peekskill to Chambers Street in Manhattan on September 29, 1849. By 1853, a ferry ran across the Hudson from Dearman to Piermont on the west bank, the village had a population of around 600, a hotel, six stores, a lumber yard and around 50 houses, and the hamlet of “Abbotsford” – which would later become Ardsley-on-Hudson – was forming along Clinton Avenue.

In 1854 the Dearman and Abbotsford combined, and by popular vite adopted the common name “Irvington”, to honor the American author Washington Irving, who was still alive at that time and living in nearby “Sunnyside” – which is today preserved as a museum. Influential residents of the village prevailed upon the Hudson River Railroad, which had reached the village by 1849, to change the name of the train station to “Irvington”, and also convinced the Postmaster to change the name of the local post office as well. It was thus under the name of “Irvington” that the village incorporated on April 16, 1872.

By the census of 1860, the population of the village was 599. A few years later, in 1863, Irvington was touched by the New York Draft Riots. Fearing that the violence in the city, which had to be put down by Federal troops, would spread to Westchester, special police were brought in and quartered in a schoolhouse on Sunnyside Lane. They were commanded by James Hamilton – the third son of Alexander Hamilton – whose estate, Nevis, was on South Broadway. The presence of this special force deterred any violence a group of draft protestors which passed through Greenburgh on their way to Tarrytown may have intended. This was the only instance in which Civil War-related activity directly affected Irvington.

With convenient rail transportation now available, the village’s cool summer breezes off the Hudson and the rural riparian setting began to attract wealthy residents of New York City – businessmen, politicians and professionals – to the area to buy up farms and build large summer residences on their new estates, setting a pattern which would hold until the early 20th century. Still, the village continued to expand, with various commercial enterprises opening along the waterfront. Pateman & Lockwood, a lumber, coal and building supply company, opened in the village in 1853, and Lord & Burnham, which built boilers and greenhouses, in 1856. Both expanded to newly created land across the railroad tracks, in 1889 and 1912 respectively, and the Cypress Lumber Company opened on a nearby site in 1909. Nothwithstanding this commercial activity, for many years, through the 19th and early 20th centuries, Irvington was a relatively small community surrounded by numerous large estates and mansions where millionaires, aristocrats and captains of industry lived – the population was reported as 2,299 in 1890 and 2,013 in 1898. After World War I, some of the bigger estates in the area were broken up into smaller lots. Many of the estates and mansions are now gone, having been replaced by suburban sub-divisions, although a small number still exist. After World War II, cooperative apartment complexes were built in the village, but despite these changes, Irvington still has many large houses, and is still an overwhelmingly well-heeled community.

In June 2016, Irvington Fire Chief Christopher D. DePaoli was one of 23 recipients of the Carnegie Hero Fund Commission medal for heroism. In April 2015, DePaoli stepped in when he saw a woman being attacked by a man with a knife at the Irvington Metro-North Station. DePaoli was able get between the man and the woman, the man’s girlfriend, who was on the ground being stabbed, and distract him with a baseball bat until the police arrived. The man was arrested and the woman survived the attack.

The village has a total area of 4.0 square miles (10 km2), of which 2.8 square miles (7.3 km2) or about 1,850 acres (750 ha) is land and 1.2 square miles (3.1 km2), or 30.94%, is water.

The village’s main thoroughfare is Broadway (Route 9) originally an Indian footpath which gradually became a horse track and then a dirt road. It came to be called the “King’s Highway” around the time that it reached Albany. Later, it was called the “Queen’s Highway”, after Queen Anne, the “Highland Turnpike” after 1800 – a name still preserved in the nearby town of Ossining – the “Albany Post Road” and, after 1850, “Broadway”. The stretch that runs through Irvington was completed by 1723. During his tenure as Postmaster General, Benjamin Franklin had 3-foot-high (0.91 m) sandstone milestone markers placed along the Broadway, inscribed with the distance from New York City. Milestone #27 is still in place in Irvington, near the driveway to 30 South Broadway.

Broadway runs north-south parallel to the river, and connects Irvington to Dobbs Ferry in the south and Tarrytown in the north. All of the village’s major streets, including Main Street, extend east and west from Broadway, and are designated as such. Broadway is designated “North Broadway” above Main Street, and “South Broadway” below it. Main Street begins at the Metro-North train station, just off the Hudson River, and travels uphill to Broadway. Side streets off of Main, which were originally designated A Street, B Street, C Street, etc. when the village grid was laid out, now have names, most of which come from local history: Astor, Buckhout, Cottenet, Dutcher, Ecker, Ferris and Grinnell.

The southbound Saw Mill River Parkway can be reached via Harriman Road/Cyrus Field Road, past the village reservoir, or East Sunnyside Lane/Mountain Road through East Irvington. The northbound Saw Mill and the New York State Thruway are accessible via Ardsley, and the Tappan Zee Bridge is nearby in Tarrytown.

Commuter train service to New York City is available at the Irvington and Ardsley-on-Hudson train stations, served by the Metro-North Railroad of the MTA. Bus service is provided on Broadway by the Westchester County Beeline Bus System via route #1T (The Bronx-Yonkers-Tarrytown) and #1W (The Bronx-Yonkers-White Plains).

As with all river communities in Westchester, Irvington is traversed by a stretch of the old Croton Aqueduct, about 3 miles (4.8 km) long, which is now part of the Old Croton Trailway State Park. The Aqueduct is a National Historic Landmark.

As of the census of 2000, there were 6,631 people, 2,518 households, and 1,812 families residing in the village. The population density was 2,377.4 people per square mile (917.7/km²). There were 2,601 housing units at an average density of 932.5 per square mile (359.9/km²). The racial makeup of the village was 88.66% White, 1.45% African American, 0.11% Native American, 6.95% Asian, 1.16% from other races, and 1.67% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.79% of the population. 18.1% were of Italian, 17.3% Irish, 7.3% German and 5.9% Russian ancestry according to Census 2000. 88.0% spoke English, 4.2% Japanese, 3.6% Spanish, 1.8% Italian and 1.0% German as their first language.

There were 2,518 households out of which 37.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.2% were married couples living together, 7.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.0% were non-families. 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.13.

In the village the population was spread out with 28.2% under the age of 18, 3.9% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 26.3% from 45 to 64, and 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 93.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.5 males.

The median income for a household in the village was $96,467, and the median income for a family was $120,895. Males had a median income of $85,708 versus $50,714 for females. The per capita income for the village was $59,116. About 1.2% of families and 3.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under age 18 and 0.9% of those age 65 or over. The average cost for a one-family house in 2010 was $585,780, below the Westchester County average of $725,000, although in 2009 the median home price was reported to be $790,000.

As of 2013, according to the Town of Greenburgh’s assessor’s office, the village had 1,182 singe-family homes, as well as 103 homes for two families, 12 for three families and an additional 344 multi-families buildings, both co-ops and condos and some rentals. Legend Hollow, the village’s one housing development, was constructed in the 1990s and has 69 large houses on lots of a half acre or larger. The Hudson Gateway Multiple Listing Service reported that the median sale price for a single-family home was $1.080 million, up from $790,000 in 2008. Co-ops went from $223,000 to $263,000 and condos went down from $592,000 to $549,000.

Although Irvington is still a suburban “bedroom community”, with a large number of people commuting into New York City to work, there are also several notable businesses and institutions located in the village, such as:

Irvington is governed by a Mayor, who is elected every two years in odd-numbered years, and four Trustees, who also serve two year terms. Two of the Trustees are elected in odd-numbered years with the Mayor, and the other two in even-numbered years. Each year, the Mayor appoints one of the Trustees to be Deputy Mayor. A paid Village Administrator is responsible for the day-to-day operations of the village, assisted by a Clerk-Treasurer. The administration is divided into eleven departments:

In addition, the Mayor and Board of Trustees are assisted in the governance of the village by a number of voluntary boards and committees:

Irvington is protected by its own 22-person police department underwater phone pouch, along with a volunteer fire department and volunteer ambulance corps, all of which are located on Main Street. Irvington’s government communicates with the village’s citizens through a newsletter, e-mail notifications and the village website.

The controversial 2005 Irvington mayoral election was held on March 15, 2005, but was not decided until October 27, 2005. The race between Republican incumbent Dennis P. Flood and Democratic challenger Erin Malloy ended up being decided “by lots”, as required by New York state law when a village election is tied (847 votes for each candidate).

The count that took place on election night gave Flood a one-vote lead. On March 18, the Westchester County Board of Elections recounted the votes, giving Malloy a one-vote lead. Turning to two unopened absentee ballots, the board found that one was for Flood, resulting in a tie. The other absentee ballot was not opened as the name on the envelope did not match any names on the voter-registration list. Susan B. Morton, who had registered to vote as Susan Brenner Morton, stepped forward three days later and demanded that her vote for Malloy be counted. For several months afterward, various suits, motions, and appeals were filed in state courts. On October 20, the Court of Appeals, New York State’s highest court, denied requests by Malloy and Morton, leaving the election in a tie. To comply with state law, the village had to use random lots to decide the winner.

State law does not specify the method of drawing lots, so the village opted to draw quarters from a bag. Eight quarters were used. Four had a bald eagle on the back and represented Malloy. Flood was represented by four quarters with the Statue of Liberty on the back. Village Trustee/Deputy Mayor Richard Livingston, a Republican, drew a quarter from the bag. It was handed to Village Clerk Lawrence Schopfer, who declared Flood to be the winner. Flood was then sworn in for his sixth two-year term as mayor of Irvington.

Months later, to complicate the situation even more, it was learned that an Irvington resident who has two houses and was registered to vote in both Irvington and a Long Island suburb, inadvertently broke the law by voting in both elections, although his intent was to cancel his Irvington voter registration. He was an adamant supporter of Flood.

Erin Malloy was elected mayor in the election of 2007, but resigned in 2008 to spend more time with her injured daughter.

Irvington is one of 83 communities in New York State which are being considered by the New York State Energy and Research Development Authority for the installation of a microgrid system, which would run under Main Street. The village’s power lines would be moved underground and solar and natural gas generators would be utilized to make it 80% power self-sufficient. In the initial phase, the Board of Trustees is in discussion with a possible technology provider. There are no current community microgrids in New York.

Irvington is part of the Irvington Union Free School District, which also includes East Irvington, an unincorporated area of the Town of Greenburgh, and the Pennybridge section of Tarrytown, Irvington’s northern neighbor. The schools are Dows Lane School (K-3), Main Street School (4&5), Irvington Middle School (6-8), and Irvington High School (9-12). The Middle School and High School are sited together on a combined campus on Heritage Hill Road off of North Broadway, on the site where the Stern castle, “Greystone”, once stood. Stern purchased the property from Augustus C. Richards in the late nineteenth century.

The school system, the student population of which was around 1,900 in 2013, is known for its small class size and emphasis on academics; and about 98% of graduates go on to higher education. In 2012, the average SAT scores were 571 (reading), 583 (math) and 573 (writing), compared to the statewide averages of 496. 514 and 488, and 74.7 percent of fourth grade students met state standards in English, and 66.1 percent in math, compared to statewide averages of 30.3 and 36.3 percent.

In 2015, U.S. News & World Report rated Irvington High School as number 32 in New York State, making it the ninth-best in Westchester, while the next year it was ranked as #198 in the United States, and #35 in New York, with a college readiness index of 70.3, and a student-teacher ration of 12:1. In June 2016, Niche.com, a rating and ranking website, rated the school district as #42 in New York State. Earlier that same year, 2016, Niche listed Irvington High School as the #83 high school in New York, and the 595th high school in the country. In October 2016, Niche also listed Irvington as the #16 best school district to teach in in New York State. In January 2017, Niche rated the Irvington school system as #29 among all the public school systems in New York state.

Located in Irvington, but not part of the regular public school district, was the Abbott School, which served homeless, neglected, abused, or developmentally disabled boys in grades 2 through 9. The students came both from the residential Abbott House, where the school was located, and as day students from community schools in Westchester County, Rockland County, and New York City. The school graduated its last class in 2011, and as of 2013 legislation is pending to dissolve the special school district, and the 15-acre property is listed for sale. Abbot House’s administrative offices remain in the former school building in Irvington.

The Immaculate Conception School, a Catholic elementary school located in Irvington, was closed by the Archdiocese of New York in June 2008, after 100 years of existence. In the 2009-2010 school year, John Cardinal O’Connor School, a Catholic non-denominational school for students in grades 2 through 8 with learning disabilities, which had formerly been St. Ursula’s Learning Center in Mount Kisco, moved into the vacant building.

There are no colleges located totally in Irvington, although part of the campus of Mercy College, founded in 1950, is located in Irvington, while the majority is just over the southern border in Dobbs Ferry, very close to Irvington’s Ardsley-on-Hudson train station, which is sub-labelled “Mercy College”.

In 1890, Mary F. Bennett founded Bennett College in the village, but in 1907 it moved to Millbrook in Dutchess County. In that same year, Marymount College was founded in Tarrytown, north of the village. It later became a campus of Fordham University, but closed in 2007.

Columbia University maintains its Nevis Laboratories in Irvington.

Irvington has four Christian churches. Three of them, the Irvington Presbyterian Church (Presbyterian), the Immaculate Conception Church (Roman Catholic) and (Episcopal), are clustered together on Broadway, just north of Main Street. The (Evangelical) is located in the Trent Building on South Buckhout Street.

The Jewish community of Irvington is served by three nearby synagogues: the traditional/non-denominational Chabad of the Rivertowns, the conservative Greenburgh Hebrew Center in Dobbs Ferry and the dual reform/conservative synagogue Temple Beth Abraham in Tarrytown. Irvington itself features a “chavruah,” or member-led Jewish congregation that follows in the conservative tradition, known as Rosh Pinah Chavruah of the Rivertowns.

Irvington is also the location of the Westchester Buddhist Center, whose Executive Director is interior designer Stacy T. Curchak.

Irvington is home to a number of members of the Unification Church, including several high-ranking families. There are several Church-owned estates and buildings located in Irvington and in the neighboring village of Tarrytown. Reverend Sun Myung Moon, the founder and, until his death in 2010, the spiritual leader the Church, had a large private estate of 17.67 acres (7.15 ha), the former Frederic Clark Sayles estate, on East Sunnyside Lane. As of 2012, the estate was still owned by the church, under its legal name “Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity”.

From 1912 to 1998, Irvington’s daily newspaper was the Tarrytown Daily News. In 1998, the Gannett Company, the last owner of the newspaper, folded all their area local papers, including the Daily News, into The Journal News, which serves Westchester, Rockland and Putnam counties, an area also referred to as the Lower Hudson Valley.

In the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, the village was also served by the Irvington Gazette, a weekly newspaper which was published on Aqueduct Street. From 1975 to the present, the Rivertowns Enterprise, a weekly newspaper, has reported on local government, schools, sports, arts and business in Irvington as well as Ardsley, Dobbs Ferry, and Hastings-on-Hudson. Additionally, the Hudson Independent, a monthly free newspaper begun in 2006, serves Irvington, Sleepy Hollow, and Tarrytown, an area also covered by the River Journal, an online news site.

Armour-Stiner Octagon House

The Cosmopolitan Building, from an advertisement for Cosmopolitan magazine, c.1900

East Irvington Public School building

Lord & Burnham Building

that area of Irvington bounded by the Hudson River to the West, and Broadway to the East (to include Saint Barnabus and the Presbyterian Churches), by the gates of Barney Park to the South, and by the gates of Matthiessen Park to the North. This boundary being consistent with the original 1850’s layout of Dearman, later renamed Irvington-on-Hudson.

Portions of Main St., W. Main St., River St., Bridge St., N. and S. Astor St., N. and S. Buckhout St., N. and S. Cottenet St., N. and S. Dutcher St., N. and S. Eckar St., N. and S. Ferris St., E. and W. Home Pl., Grinnel St., Aqueduct Ln., N. and S. Dearman St., and Broadway

“Nuits”, the residence of Francis Cottenet, c.1860

Irvington Town Hall

Villa Lewaro

Washington Irving Memorial

In an October 2010 ranking of the “Best Places to Live”, Westchester Magazine listed Irvington as #1, remarking that the village is:

Charming, quiet, green, with a darling Main Street, stunning river views, [and] a burgeoning dining scene … this unassuming rivertown is pretty near perfect. … [The village] scored the highest in our tally, getting a perfect 10 for safety and proximity to water … a 9 for its schools … and an 8 for its green space … All in all, a great mix.

Factors in which Irvington did not score well in this ranking were “Diversity” and “Property tax”, both with a score of four out of ten, and “Housing cost”, which earned a five.

In May 2015, the village released a report which indicated that its water supply exceeded the requirements laid down by the State of New York, and later that year, it was reported that Irvington ranked #6 on a list of the safest places in New York based on FBI crime data.

On the other hand, in February 2016 the website RoadSnacks, in an article which made clear that it was “opinion based on fact” and intended as “infotainment”, not as serious science, listed Irvington as the third most boring place in New York State, after Briarcliff Manor and Rye Brook in Westchester, and just above Croton-on-Hudson, also in Westchester, and Chestnut Ridge in Rockland.

In November 2016, Irvington was rated as #17 on a list of the “30 Safest Places To Live In New York – 2016” best water bottle for sports. Its violent crime rate per 1000 was 0.2, and its property crime rate, also per 1000, was 2.7.

As of 2013 about a third of Irvington’s land is undeveloped public land, and, as of 2010, 23 percent of the land in Irvington is set aside for parks and recreation. Three of Irvington’s parks, Memorial Park (Dows Lane or Station Road), Matthiessen Park (Bridge Street off Astor Street), and Halsey Pond Park, are open only to village residents with a permit, but others are accessible by the general public. The Irvington Parks and Recreation Department is located in the Isabel K. Benjamin Community Center on Main Street.

In 2009, Westchester Magazine named Irvington as the best place for “foodies” to live on the west side of Westchester County, although the article named only two restaurants in the village itself – “Red Hat” and “Chutney Masala” – as well as others in nearby Dobbs Ferry, Hastings and Tarrytown. In May 2012, chef Michael Psilakis opened “MP Taverna” in an old warehouse near the river. In 2013, the Sixty One Bistro opened at 61 Main Street, and in November 2014, “Wolfert’s Roost” – named after the original name of Washington Irving’s Sunnyside estate – opened at 100 Main Street with an “exuberant” menu, which includes a 38-ounce steak for $129 that “looks like something Fred Flintstone might have slapped on the grill”; in October 2016 it was announced that it would be closing as a full-time restaurant in favor of catering and occasional “pop up” restaurants. The owner, Eric Korn, was also opening a traditional pizza shop on the same block. Also on Main Street is “La Chinita Poblana”, which also opened in 2014, a strong, un-“kitschy” Mexican restaurant decorated with paintings by Diego Rivera, and “Chutney Masala”, a Tandoori restaurant, which moved in 2016 from the Irvington waterfront to 76 Main Street. In October 2016, the owner of “Chutney Masala” opened “Sambal Thai and Malaysian” on Main Street.

In addition, Irvington’s former New York Central Railroad station house, which was a ticket office from 1889 to 1957, is now, in 2016, with the addition of an outdoor garden, “Brrzaar”, a 20-seat café serving frozen yogurt.

Notable past residents of Irvington include: John Jacob Astor III, the wealthiest man in America at the time; Amzi Lorenzo Barber, the asphalt king; Albert Bierstadt, a noted landscape painter; Chauncey M. Depew, President of the New York Central Railroad and a United States senator; Cyrus W. Field, who laid the first transatlantic telegraph cable, who once owned 800 acres (320 ha) in the area– now known as Ardsley Park – and whose 8,000 square feet (740 m2) house “Inanda” – meaning “pleasant place” in Zulu – he built in 1875 for one of his daughter and her husband went on the market in 2016 for $2.95 million., later reduced to $2.85 million; Frank Jay Gould, the philanthropist son of Jay Gould; Frederick W. Guiteau and David Dows, who made their millions in grain commissions and railroads.

The Reverend Sun Myung Moon, head of the Unification Church, had a residence in Irvington at the time of his death; Lillian Nordica, a noted opera singer of the late 19th and early 20th centuries; Charles Lewis Tiffany the founder of Tiffany & Co., whose son, Louis Comfort Tiffany, designed the Tiffany glass which can be seen in the clock tower and lighting fixtures in the Town Hall and the stained glass windows in the Presbyterian Church; Madam C. J. Walker (see “Villa Lewaro” in Points of Interest above); and Justine Bayard Cutting Ward, who developed the Ward method of music education.

Jazz saxophonist Stan Getz lived in Irvington – his estate, “Shadowbrook”, is less than a mile from Washington Irving’s home, at the intersection of Broadway and West Sunnyside Lane; Getz’s contemporary, jazz drummer and bandleader Mel Lewis (né Melvin Sokoloff) also lived in Irvington.

Silent film and Broadway theater actor William Black was born in Irvington, as was Julianna Rose Mauriello, the star of the children’s television series LazyTown. Actress Joan Blondell lived in Irvington for a time, in the late 1940s and early 50’s, with her husband – movie producer Mike Todd – and Blondell’s children, including Norman S. Powell (the adopted son of Dick Powell), who went to Irvington’s public schools.

In the 1970s, actors Jack Cassidy and Shirley Jones, who were married, lived for a time in Irvington, along with their son Shaun Cassidy – but not David Cassidy, who no longer lived with the family by then. Shaun attended the Irvington Public Schools for a short time.

Ted Mack, for many years the host of Ted Mack’s Original Amateur Hour on television, was also a resident, as was actress Patricia Neal, who lived in Irvington for a while.[when?][citation needed] Oscar-winning cinematographer Wally Pfister, noted for his work on Inception (2010) and Christopher Nolan’s Batman films, was raised in Irvington in the 1960s and 70s, and attended the local schools. The acting couple Debra Winger and Arliss Howard also lived in Irvington. Singer Julius La Rosa lived in Irvington for over 40 years, until November 2015.

Poet Lucia Perillo – who received a MacArthur “Genius grant in 2000, and died of multiple sclerosis in 2016 – grew up in Irvington in the 1960s. Larry Smith, author of Beyond Glory: Medal of Honor Heroes in Their Own Words, which was adapted into a 2015 film starring Stephen Lang and Gary Sinise,

Irvington is currently home to number of notable residents, including: ABC News weatherman Storm Field; designer Eileen Fisher; Sesame Workshop co-founder Monica Getz; jazz musician Bob James; the “Sneaky Chef” Missy Chase Lapine; choreographer Peter Martins; writer Robert K. Massie; Fox News newscaster Jon Scott; and television host Meredith Vieira;

Films and television

Literature

Notes

“Just how the change in our northern boundary occurred I could never find out to my satisfaction. Some say this calamity happened over night, so to speak, when our officials were napping or away on vacation. But this I know, that fully a dozen of our most prominent citizens and their magnificent estates were suddenly taken from Irvington territory and the village boundary was moved to the center of Sunnyside Lane. … The part that most saddened our hearts was the fact that Irving’s home, “Sunnyside”, for whom Irvington was named, no longer rests in the town in which he originally thought he lived.” Jennie Black (quoted in Graff & Graff, pp. 54-56)

Bibliography

Maps and images

History

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