Giurisdavidismo

Coordinate:

Il giurisdavidismo è stato un movimento religioso fondato dal predicatore Davide Lazzaretti negli anni settanta del XIX secolo e attivo ufficialmente fino al 2002.

Il movimento nacque per volontà di Davide Lazzaretti di Arcidosso, barrocciaio di umili origini, il quale, dopo alcune visioni profetiche, iniziò nel proprio paese natale e nei piccoli villaggi del Monte Labbro (Zancona, Macchie, Rondinelli) a raccogliere discepoli e proseliti con il comune scopo di riformare la religiosità cattolica, in relazione diretta con il sociale, in vista di una nuova era della cristianità. Secondo la teologia giurisdavidica, la storia umana era da dividersi in tre epoche, dette “leggi”: la “legge di giustizia”, il cui portatore è Mosè; la “legge di grazia”, il cui portatore è Gesù Cristo; e la “legge di diritto”, il cui portatore è il Lazzaretti stesso. La Chiesa cattolica, con il papato visto come istituzione lontana dagli uomini, doveva essere riformata e la Chiesa giurisdavidica si proponeva come portatrice di nuovi messaggi: l’abolizione del celibato dei sacerdoti, la fine dei riti romani, i malvagi all’Inferno solo temporaneamente, e infine salvati. Negli anni settanta del XIX secolo, Davide Lazzaretti fondò tre significativi istituti religiosi: la Santa lega, detta anche Fratellanza cristiana (1870), con finalità assistenziali; l’Istituto degli eremiti penitenzieri e penitenti (1871), organizzazione strettamente religiosa, impregnata dello spirito millenarista e messianico; e la Società delle famiglie cristiane (1872), la più importante delle istituzioni dal punto di vista sociale, tendente a costruire una comunità in cui i suoi aderenti lavorassero e mettessero in comune i loro beni secondo lo spirito originario primitivo delle chiese cristiane. Particolare importanza va dato al sistema di elezione degli organi dirigenti della comunità: Davide istituì un suffragio universale, con il voto esteso alle donne, quando ciò era pensiero ancora lontano in Italia e nel resto d’Europa. Gli istituti costituivano un tentativo di anticipare aspetti di un’ampia visione escatologica, nell’adempimento delle volontà divine (le tre istituzioni rappresentano simbolicamente le tre virtù teologali: rispettivamente carità, fede e speranza) che avrebbe portato all’inizio della nuova era.

Dopo il 1878, anno in cui Davide Lazzaretti, ormai bollato come sovversivo, fu ucciso dai militari del Regio esercito italiano custom youth football pants, presso Arcidosso durante una pacifica processione, dietro la quale si celava una collaborazione atipica tra Stato e l’istituzione Chiesa, i seguaci del Lazzaretti continuarono la sua opera e la divulgazione del suo pensiero. Nel 2002, alla morte dell’ultimo sommo sacerdote, Turpino Chiappini, la Chiesa giurisdavidica ufficiale pone fine alla sua storia. Sopravvive, tuttavia, qualche anziano praticante nell’area del Monte Labbro, mentre dal 1978 è attivo ad Arcidosso il Centro studi David Lazzaretti, dedito allo studio, la raccolta e la divulgazione di materiale riguardante il Lazzaretti ed il suo movimento religioso. Presso la frazione della Zancona, villaggio legato nella sua storia indissolubilmente alla vicenda di Davide, è conservato l’archivio dei seguaci.

Da segnalare che una piccola realtà religiosa, ispirata alla figura di Davide Lazzaretti, sopravvive a Roma, dove Elena Cappelli (1867-1953), moglie del sommo sacerdote Filippo Imperiuzzi, rielaborò il messaggio davidico unendolo con elementi derivanti dall’esoterismo e dalla Società Teosofica. Ad Elena Cappelli succedette Elvira Giro (1910-1989), poi Fausta Cozzi (1925-2008) ed infine Maurizio Maggioni, che al momento guida la cosiddetta Chiesa Universale Giuris-Davidica, ben distinta dall’originale movimento di Arcidosso.

Nella visione originaria della gerarchia della Chiesa giurisdavidica al vertice stava il “sacerdote eremita”, somma guida della comunità religiosa. Al secondo livello, più in basso, c’erano le “dodici matrone” e i “sette principi spirituali”; al terzo livello, le “dodici suore di carità” e i “dodici apostoli”; al quarto livello, c’erano le “dodici fanciulle pie” e i “dodici discepoli”; infine, al quinto e più basso livello, le “dodici figlie dei cantici” e i “dodici musicanti”.

Alla morte del Lazzaretti, il 18 agosto 1878 un’assemblea di seguaci stabilì il nuovo organigramma della Chiesa giurisdavidica: un primo sacerdote, dodici apostoli, dodici discepoli e dodici condiscepoli. Si riporta qui la prima formazione della comunità stabilita in quella data.

Coloro che ricoprirono la carica di guida della Chiesa giurisdavidica nella storia del movimento sono stati: Filippo Imperiuzzi (1843-1921), Cherubino Cheli (1843-1923), Francesco Tommencioni (1853-1934), Giovanni Conti, Giuseppe Conti, Arcangelo Cheli, Nazareno Bargagli (1888-1975), Turpino Chiappini (1925-2002).

La messa giurisdavidica è costituita dal rito della consacrazione del pane e del vino e alla recitazione dell’atto di contrizione e di preghiere e litanie. Il battesimo giurisdavidico è somministrato con l’impressione a fuoco sulla pelle di un marchio rappresentante il simbolo del giurisdavidismo, la doppia C con croce nel mezzo che simboleggia la prima e la seconda venuta di Cristo; il rito funebre è officiato con lodi e preghiere.

I luoghi sacri del giurisdavidismo sono situati sul Monte Labbro, ribattezzato dal Lazzaretti Labaro: la torre, la cui costruzione fu iniziata nel luglio 1869 e terminò nell’agosto 1870; la chiesetta, consacrata nel 1872 e l’eremo, completato nel 1875. Dopo la morte del Lazzaretti, la torre andò in rovina e alcuni primi tentativi di recupero furono intrapresi nel 1958 da alcuni seguaci. Gravemente danneggiata da un fulmine, fu consolidata nel 1995 e restaurata negli anni tra il 2003 e il 2004. Degli altri edifici è possibile ammirare i ruderi dry case waterproof cell phone case. Un altro sacro luogo è la cosiddetta Grotta della Sabina, l’eremo medievale di Sant’Angelo, presso Montorio Romano water running belts, dove Davide Lazzaretti si ritirò in penitenza per quarantasette giorni nel 1868 youth football team uniforms.

Hour of Power

Hour of Power is a weekly American Christian television program formerly broadcast from the Crystal Cathedral in Garden Grove, California.

The program was founded and first hosted by Robert H. Schuller. It is currently hosted by Bobby Schuller, who is Robert H. Schuller’s grandson and the son of Robert A. Schuller, himself a former host. It was also once hosted by Sheila Schuller Coleman, a daughter of Robert H. Schuller.

The program is normally one hour long, but some networks broadcast an edited 30 minute program. It features a large congregation, mostly Christian music with a choir (with an orchestra as well as the Crystal Cathedral organ as of March 2012) and guests who speak about how God and their Christian faith have changed their lives for the better custom youth football pants.

The program first aired in 1970 as a church service of the Garden Grove Community Church. It was originally hosted by the elder Schuller; the younger Schuller hosted it from 2006 to 2008.

On July 9, 2008, the presidency of the church was shifted from the Robert H. Schuller to his son-in-law Jim Coleman. On October 26, 2008, it was announced that Schuller had removed his son, Robert A. Schuller, as teaching pastor, but allowed him to remain as the Crystal Cathedral’s senior pastor. Robert H. Schuller said that he wanted to take the ministry in a different direction and for the foreseeable future would use guest speakers for the weekly services rather than his son. Well-known speakers who were used in the early stages of the new format included Lee Strobel, John C. Maxwell, and Bill Hybels.[citation needed] On November 29, 2008, the church announced that the younger Schuller had resigned historical football shirts.

On October 18, 2010, the board of the Crystal Cathedral filed for bankruptcy in Santa Ana, California.

On March 10, 2012, it was announced that Robert H. Schuller and his wife, Arvella, would be leaving the church. The following day their elder daughter, Sheila Schuller Coleman, announced at the morning service that she would also be leaving the church, therefore cutting all family ties with the Crystal Cathedral and Hour of Power, stating that “This is the last Sunday we will be worshiping in this building.” The ministry’s successor, the Rev. Bill Bennett, said that the ministry would continue but using a more traditional service. In June 2012, the Rev. Bobby Schuller, the son of Robert A. Schuller, started preaching on a voluntary basis. In February 2013, Bobby Schuller was named as pastor for the Hour of Power. The Crystal Cathedral congregation was renamed Shepherds Grove in 2013 and relocated to another property soon after.

The program airs in the United States mainly using paid programming time on Freeform (TV channel), the Trinity Broadcasting Network/The Church Channel and Hillsong Channel, along with about 100 stations through individual contracts. The program also airs over the American Forces Network.

In Canada it is carried on VisionTV.

In Europe it is broadcast on CNBC Europe, VOX in Austria, Germany and Switzerland double wall stainless steel bottle, on RTL in the Netherlands and Sky1 in Ireland and the United Kingdom.

In the Middle East it is carried on METV in Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria.

In Australia thermal bottle, it is seen on EXPO, Australian Christian Channel and Network Ten; the program is also broadcast weekly on radio.

It is broadcast in New Zealand on the Prime network.

It is broadcast in Hong Kong on ATV World, NOW TV Channel 564 & TVB Pearl.

The Hour of Power telecast, filmed in the Crystal Cathedral’s main sanctuary, at one point attracted 1.3 million viewers from 156 countries.

Beginning in the late 1990s, the ministry struggled financially after it borrowed money to build a visitors’ center.

2008 revenues for the program were nearly $5 million lower than revenues for 2007. As of early 2009, the church planned to sell more than $65 million worth of its Orange County property to pay off debt: 150 acres (0.61 km2) in San Juan Capistrano, California, and an office building in Garden Grove, California.

Mineo Ōsumi

Le baron Mineo Ōsumi (村上 格一, Ōsumi Mineo custom youth football pants?) () est un amiral de la marine impériale japonaise qui fut deux fois ministre de la Marine dans les années 1930. Il meurt en Chine lorsque l’avion qui le transporte est abattu pendant la seconde guerre sino-japonaise.

Né dans la préfecture de Kōchi, Ōsumi grandit cependant dans la préfecture d’Aichi. Il sort diplômé de la 24e promotion de l’académie navale impériale du Japon où il se classe 3e sur 18 cadets. Il sert comme aspirant sur la corvette Hiei (en), le croiseur Itsukushima (en) et le cuirassé Yashima (en). Nommé enseigne, il est affecté sur le croiseur Chiyoda puis sur l’Azuma pendant un voyage vers la France en 1899.

De retour au Japon, Ōsumi est promu lieutenant et sert comme chef de la navigation sur les croiseurs Saien et Matsushima (en), et sur le navire de patrouille Manshu durant la guerre russo-japonaise. Avec le Matsushima, il participe à la bataille de Port-Arthur et à d’autres combats.

Après ce conflit, Ōsumi retourne à l’école navale impériale du Japon et devient lieutenant-commandant le . Servant à divers poste d’État-major, il est attaché naval en Allemagne du au .

De retour au Japon, Ōsumi est promu commandant et affecté comme aide-de-camp de l’amiral Tōgō Heihachirō. Il passe un an comme commandant en second du croiseur de bataille Tsukuba (en) de 1913 à 1914, retourne à des postes d’État-major jusqu’au quand il reçoit le commandement du cuirassé Asahi.

Du au , Ōsumi est attaché naval en France. Durant cette période, il participe à la délégation japonaise des négociations du traité de Versailles et est promu contre-amiral le .

Revenu au Japon, Ōsumi sert comme directeur du bureau des affaires navales en 1922, est promu vice-amiral en 1924, vice-ministre de la Marine en 1925, commandant-en-chef de la 2e flotte (en) en 1928, et commandant-en-chef du district naval de Yokosuka en 1929. Il est promu amiral le . Il est un fervent partisan de la doctrine d’expansion vers le Sud (Nanshin-ron) mais refuse de s’aligner lui-même ni avec la faction du traité, ni avec la faction de la flotte.

Ōsumi sert comme ministre de la Marine de décembre 1931 à mai 1932 dans le gouvernement du Premier ministre Wakatsuki Reijirō.

Il est de nouveau ministre de la Marine de janvier 1933 à mars 1936 dans les gouvernements de Saitō Makoto et Keisuke Okada. En dépit de sa réputation de libéral, il soutient la décision de se retirer de la Société des Nations tout en réclamant un plus grand budget pour la marine et une renégociation du traité naval de Washington. Lors d’un débat « beurre et canons (en) », Ōsumi affirme aux législateurs japonais que l’important est d’agrandir la marine et que « toute la nation japonaise doit être prête à faire face à la situation, même si nous en sommes réduits à manger du gruau de riz ».

Le , il reçoit le titre de baron (danshaku) selon le système de noblesse kazoku. Il sert comme conseiller naval à partir de 1936.

Ōsumi est tué au combat le durant la seconde guerre sino-japonaise quand son avion, un appareil de transport, est abattu par la guérilla chinoise peu après son décollage de Canton vers l’île de Hainan également occupée par les Japonais water bottle with sleeve.

Larry Catá Backer

Larry Catá Backer (born 1 February 1955) is a Cuban-American legal scholar and professor of law and international affairs. He holds a professorship at the Penn State University, and is the W. Richard and Mary Eshelman Faculty Scholar Professor of Law and International Affairs, Penn State Law and , Pennsylvania State University (2001–), Ashgate Publishing Globalization Law & Policy Series editor (2010–), and the executive director of the Washington-based NGO (2006–).

A prominent comparative corporate and international law scholar and a leading researcher in constitutional law, Professor Backer is a member of the American Law Institute and the European Corporate Governance Institute. He has served as a grant peer reviewer for the The Hague Institute for the Internationalisation of Law in the Netherlands, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, and others.

Backer was born in Cuba and moved to Miami, FL at an early age after the Cuban Revolution of 1959. Backer was educated at Columbia University School of Law (JD 1982), Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government (MPP 1979) and Brandeis University (BA in history 1977).

After law school and a clerkship with Judge Leonard I. Garth (U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit) Backer was in private practice in Los Angeles, California. Backer joined the Penn State Law faculty in 2000, after having served as professor of law and executive director of the Center for International and Comparative Law of the University of Tulsa College of Law. He has visited at the Tulane Law School (2007–2008) and the University of California, Hastings College of the Law (1998). Professor Backer has lectured and taught on public and private law aspects of globalization in a number of countries in Latin America, Asia and Europe. He founded and sponsors the Penn State Latina/o Law Students Association.

In 2006, Backer founded the , an independent, non-profit, non-partisan, tax-exempt research and information focused organization based in Washington, D.C. As part of its research mission, CPE sponsors research oriented working papers, preliminary scientific or technical paper. The authors of these working papers have released them to share ideas about a topic or to elicit feedback before submitting to a peer reviewed conference or academic journal glass bpa free water bottles. These working papers are preliminary versions that are being shared to a broad research community, with the aim of contributing to scholarly debate and soliciting constructive feedback.

Backer is also a member of the American Law Institute and the European Corporate Governance Institute. He served as the chair of the Penn State University Faculty Senate for 2012–2013.

For his work on transnational constitutionalism, Backer has argued that after World War II, transnational constitutionalism embraced universal human rights as the core feature that emerged with the introduction of post-conflict German and Japanese constitutions. He also has examined the emergence of theocratic constitutionalism starting from the Iranian 1979 constitution. Backer argues that constitutionalism is the legal process in which each state harmonizes with international norms and laws. Backer is well known for his works on Chinese Constitutionalism. According to Backer, China is evolving towards a “single party constitutionalist state ”that is grounded in its unique form of “party-state constitutionalism.” Backer argued that the Chinese constitutionalist state differs from the Western model in that the CCP plays a central role in the Chinese constitutional order custom youth football pants. In order to articulate his conception of the Chinese “single-party constitutionalist state” as a new model of constitutionalist governance, Backer delineated the history for the Chinese state-party system that began from Mao Zedong, and was subsequently improved and strengthened through the works of Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, and Hu Jintao. Backer acknowledged that Mao Zedong Thought has had a profound impact on the shaping of China’s constitutionalist system, especially in regard to the idea of the Party’s role as an outsider. “The CCP was not merely a vanguard party, but for a long time a revolutionary party. Even after the end of the civil war, the CCP continued to think of itself as outside the apparatus.” Therefore, in terms of the relationship between the CCP and the state, there was a lengthy process of internalization where the Party as an outsider became internalized into the state through its Mass Line.

Backer has also written extensively on the imposition of binding human rights norms on multinational corporations, where “the norms internationalize and adopt an enterprise liability model as the basis for determining the scope of liability for groups of related companies. This approach…eliminates one of the greatest complaints about globalization through large webs of interconnected but legally independent corporations forming one large enterprise.” Backer is also known for his work on the Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs), where he suggested that states have deployed their private global investments (SWFs) as instruments for public global governance.

Gods Over Constitution: Transnational Constitutionalism in the 21st century (Surry, Eng.: Ashgate Publishing, forthcoming 2013) ISBN 978-0-7546-7859-5.

Lawyers Making Meaning: The Semiotics of Law in Legal Education II (Dordrecht: Springer, 2012) (with Jan M. Broekman). ISBN 978-9400754577.

Harmonizing Law in an Era of Globalization: Convergence, Divergence, Resistance (Durham, N.C.: Carolina Academic Press, 2007) ISBN 0-89089-585-6 (editor and contributor).

Comparative Corporate Law: United States, European Union, China and Japan (Durham, N.C.: Carolina Academic Press, 2002) ISBN 0-89089-526-0; LCCN 2001088034.

Multinational Corporations, Transnational Law: The United Nation’s Norms on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations as Harbinger of Corporate Responsibility in International Law Columbia Human Rights Law Review, Vol. 37, 2005

Sovereign Wealth Funds as Regulatory Chameleons: The Norwegian Sovereign Wealth Funds and Public Global Governance Through Private Global Investment Georgetown Journal of International Law, Vol. 41, No. 2, 2009

The Rule of Law, the Chinese Communist Party running belts for gels, and Ideological Campaigns: Sange Daibiao (the ‘Three Represents’), Socialist Rule of Law, and Modern Chinese Constitutionalism Journal of Transnational Law and Contemporary Problems, Vol. 16, No. 1 tritan plastic water bottle, 2006

Multinational Corporations as Objects and Sources of Transnational Regulation ILSA Journal of International & Comparative Law, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2008

The Private Law of Public Law: Public Authorities as Shareholders, Golden Shares, Sovereign Wealth Funds, and the Public Law Element in Private Choice of Law Tulane Law Review, Vol. 82, No. 1, 2008

Adler (Schiff, 1904)

Seeadler
Aegna
Volkow

Die Adler war ein Seebäderschiff der HAPAG, die es von 1912 bis 1935 einsetzte. Fertiggestellt wurde sie 1905 als erstes ziviles deutsches Dampfturbinenschiff. Die Turbine wurde vor dem Einsatz als Seebäderschiff durch eine konventionelle Dreifach-Expansionsmaschine ersetzt.

1935 wurde das Schiff nach Estland verkauft und als Fährschiff Aegna zwischen Tallinn und Helsinki eingesetzt. In sowjetischen Besitz gelangt

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, ging das Schiff vor 1950 verloren.

Das Schiff lief am 8 scotland football socks. Oktober 1904 bei den Howaldtswerken in Kiel mit der Baunummer 392 zunächst noch ohne Namen vom Stapel. Es war 59,44 m lang zwischen den Loten und 7,64 m breit, hatte 3,45 m Tiefgang und war mit 594 BRT vermessen. Das Schiff hatte zwei Masten und einen Schornstein und besaß als erstes deutsches Schiff eine Maschinenanlage mit einer Zoelly-Dampfturbine mit 1200 PS, die ihm eine Geschwindigkeit von 15 Knoten verlieh. Es war das erste in Deutschland gebaute zivile Turbinenschiff. Die Kaiserliche Marine erhielt im April 1905 ihre beiden ersten Turbinenschiffe, den Kreuzer SMS Lübeck vom Stettiner Vulcan und das Schichau-Torpedoboot SMS S 125, die von Parsons-Turbinen angetrieben wurden.

Es war im Auftrag eines Kieler Konsortiums gebaut worden, das das Schiff auf der Ostsee im Post- und Passagierverkehr mit Kabinen einsetzen wollte. Das Konsortium übernahm das Schiff jedoch nicht und löste sich auf. Daraufhin nutzte die Werft das Schiff nach seiner Fertigstellung im Januar 1905 eine Zeitlang als Versuchsschiff für Dampfturbinenbetriebund legte es dann auf, während ein neuer Käufer gesucht wurde.

Erst 1912 fand sich ein Käufer mit der HAPAG, die das Schiff am 26. März 1912 kaufte und es zum Seebäderschiff mit Platz für 200 Deckspassagiere umbauen ließ. Die Hapag verfügte mit der Kaiser seit Herbst 1905 über ein großes, turbinengetriebenes Seebäderschiff. Auf der Neuerwerbung ersetzte man die Turbine durch eine Dreifach-Expansionsmaschine von 93 nhp, die nur noch eine Geschwindigkeit von 11 Knoten ermöglichte. Nach dem Umbau war sie mit 563 BRT und 202 NRT vermessen. Am 7. Juli wurde das nun Adler genannte Schiff ausgeliefert und ab dem 10. Juli machte es seine Probefahrten. Danach wurde es im Seebäderdienst von Hamburg nach Helgoland und anderen Seebädern an der Nordsee eingesetzt. Dabei erwies sich das Schiff als äußerst seetüchtig und wurde auch im Post- und Güterverkehr außerhalb der Saison bis 1935 eingesetzt.

Im Ersten Weltkrieg wurde die Adler von der Kaiserlichen Marine requiriert und nach entsprechender Umrüstung vom 12. November 1914 bis Kriegsende als Lazarettschiff bzw. Verwundetentransportschiff eingesetzt. Es wurde mit 177 Krankenbetten ausgerüstet und erhielt neben der Schiffsbesatzung noch 21 Personen Sanitätspersonal.

Am 13. November 1918 wurde die Adler an die HAPAG zurückgegeben und dann wieder auf ihrer alten Route eingesetzt custom youth football pants. 1926 erhielt sie neue Kessel und erhielt 1927 statt des schwarzen einen weißen Rumpfanstrich. Bis zum Ende der Saison 1935 blieb das Schiff im Dienst, den es zuletzt zusammen mit der neuen Königin Luise, der Cobra, Kaiser sowie gelegentlich der Kehrwieder bediente.

Am 5. Oktober 1935 wurde das Schiff an Louis Köster in Altona verkauft, der es in Seeadler umbenannte, aber noch im gleichen Jahr, am 6. Dezember, an die Reederei G. Sergo & Co. in Tallinn (Estland) weiterverkaufte. Diese ließ Kabinen für 30 Passagiere der Ersten und 40 der Zweiten Klasse einbauen, womit einschließlich der 100 Decksplätze insgesamt 170 Personen befördert werden konnten. Unter dem neuen Namen Aegna, nach einer Insel vor Tallinn, befuhr das Schiff nun die Strecke Tallinn—Helsinki.

Bei der sowjetischen Besetzung Estlands im Juni 1940 wurde das Schiff von den Besatzern in Besitz genommen.

Nur wenig mehr als ein Jahr später, in der Folge des deutschen Angriffs auf die Sowjetunion, fiel das Schiff im August 1941 in Tallinn in deutsche Hand. Es wurde dann von der Kriegsmarine als Lotsentender genutzt.

Am 28. November 1944 wurde das Schiff in Memel von den vorrückenden Sowjetischen Truppen erobert. Es wurde, wohl 1946, in Wolchow (russisch Волхов) umbenannt. Wie lange es danach unter sowjetischer Flagge fuhr, ist ungewiss. Als Aegna war es noch bis 1951 im Lloyds Register verzeichnet.