José de Alencar

José Martiniano de Alencar (May 1, 1829 – December 12, 1877) was a Brazilian lawyer, politician, orator, novelist and dramatist. He is considered to be one of the most famous and influential Brazilian Romantic novelists of the 19th century, and a major exponent of the literary tradition known as “Indianism”. Sometimes he signed his works with the pen name Erasmo.

He is patron of the 23rd chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.

José Martiniano de Alencar was born in what is today the bairro of Messejana, Fortaleza, Ceará, on May 1, 1829, to former priest (and later politician) José Martiniano Pereira de Alencar and his cousin Ana Josefina de Alencar. Moving to São Paulo in 1844, he graduated in Law at the Faculdade de Direito da Universidade de São Paulo in 1850 and started his career in law in Rio de Janeiro. Invited by his friend Francisco Otaviano, he became a collaborator for the journal Correio Mercantil. He also wrote many chronicles for the Diário do Rio de Janeiro and the Jornal do Commercio. Alencar would compile all the chronicles he wrote for these newspapers in 1874 tenderize meat without mallet, under the name Ao Correr da Pena.

It was in the Diário do Rio de Janeiro, during the year of 1856, that Alencar gained notoriety, writing the Cartas sobre A Confederação dos Tamoios, under the pseudonym Ig. In them, he bitterly criticized the homonymous poem by Gonçalves de Magalhães. Even the Brazilian Emperor Pedro II, who esteemed Magalhães very much, participated in this polemic

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, albeit under a pseudonym. Also in 1856, he wrote and published under feuilleton form his first romance, Cinco Minutos, that received critical acclaim. In the following year, his breakthrough novel, O Guarani, was released; it would be adapted into a famous opera by Brazilian composer Antônio Carlos Gomes 13 years later. O Guarani would be first novel of what is informally called Alencar’s “Indianist Trilogy” – a series of three novels by Alencar that focused on the foundations of the Brazilian nation, and on its indigenous peoples and culture. The other two novels, Iracema and Ubirajara, would be published on 1865 and 1874, respectively. Although called a trilogy, the three books are unrelated in its plots.

Alencar was affiliated with the Conservative Party of Brazil, being elected as a general deputy for Ceará. He was the Brazilian Minister of Justice from 1868 to 1870, having famously opposed the abolition of slavery boys football uniform. He also planned to be a senator, but Pedro II never appointed him, under the pretext of Alencar being too young; with his feelings hurt, he would abandon politics later.

He was very close friends with the also famous writer Machado de Assis, who wrote an article in 1866 praising his novel Iracema, that was published the year before, comparing his Indianist works to Gonçalves Dias, saying that “Alencar was in prose what Dias was in poetry”. When Assis founded the Brazilian Academy of Letters in 1897, he chose Alencar as the patron of his chair.

In 1864 he married Georgina Augusta Cochrane, daughter of an eccentric British aristocrat. They would have six children – Augusto (who would be the Brazilian Minister of External Relations in 1919, and also the Brazilian ambassador on the United States from 1920 to 1924), Clarisse, Ceci, Elisa, Mário (who would be a journalist and writer, and a member of the Brazilian Academy of Letters) and Adélia. (It is implied that Mário de Alencar was actually an illegitimate son of Machado de Assis, a fact that inspired Assis to write his famous novel Dom Casmurro.)

Alencar died in Rio de Janeiro in 1877, a victim of tuberculosis. A theatre in Fortaleza, the Theatro José de Alencar, was named after him.

1 (Adelino Fontoura): Luís Murat ► Afonso d’Escragnolle Taunay ► Ivan Monteiro de Barros Lins ► Bernardo Élis ► Evandro Lins e Silva ► Ana Maria Machado
2 (Álvares de Azevedo): Coelho Neto ► João Neves da Fontoura ► Guimarães Rosa ► Mário Palmério ► Tarcísio Padilha
3 (Artur de Oliveira): Filinto de Almeida ► Roberto Simonsen ► Aníbal Freire da Fonseca ► Herberto Sales ► Carlos Heitor Cony
4 (Basílio da Gama): Aluísio Azevedo ► Alcides Maia ► Viana Moog ► Carlos Nejar
5 (Bernardo Guimarães): Raimundo Correia ► Oswaldo Cruz ► Aloísio de Castro ► Cândido Mota Filho ► Rachel de Queiroz ► José Murilo de Carvalho
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16 (Gregório de Matos): Araripe Júnior ► Félix Pacheco ► Pedro Calmon ► Lygia Fagundes Telles
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18 (João Francisco Lisboa): José Veríssimo ► Barão Homem de Melo ► Alberto Faria ► Luís Carlos ► Pereira da Silva ► Peregrino Júnior ► Arnaldo Niskier
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21 (Joaquim Serra): José do Patrocínio ► Mário de Alencar ► Olegário Mariano ► Álvaro Moreira ► Adonias Filho ► Dias Gomes ► Roberto Campos ► Paulo Coelho
22 (José Bonifácio the Younger): Medeiros e Albuquerque ► Miguel Osório de Almeida ► Luís Viana Filho ► Ivo Pitanguy
23 (José de Alencar): Machado de Assis ► Lafayette Rodrigues Pereira ► Alfredo Pujol ► Otávio Mangabeira ► Jorge Amado ► Zélia Gattai ► Luiz Paulo Horta
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37 (Tomás António Gonzaga): José Júlio da Silva Ramos ► José de Alcântara Machado ► Getúlio Vargas ► Assis Chateaubriand ► João Cabral de Melo Neto ► Ivan Junqueira ► Ferreira Gullar ► Arno Wehling
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Gradište (bergstopp i Makedonien, Opsjtina Kavadarci, lat 41,21, long 22,07)

Gradište är en bergstopp i Makedonien. Den ligger i kommunen Opsjtina Kavadarci, i den sydöstra delen av landet, 100 kilometer sydost om huvudstaden Skopje. Toppen på Gradište är 946 meter över havet.

Terrängen runt Gradište är huvudsakligen kuperad, men åt sydost är den bergig. Den högsta punkten i närheten är 1 212 meter över havet, 1,0 kilometer söder om Gradište. Runt Gradište är det mycket glesbefolkat, med 3 invånare per kvadratkilometer adolfs meat tenderizer.. Närmaste större samhälle är Konopisjte, 4,2 kilometer norr om Gradište when to tenderize meat. I trakten runt Gradište finns ovanligt många namngivna klippformationer och skogar.

I omgivningarna runt Gradište växer i huvudsak blandskog. Trakten ingår i den hemiboreala klimatzonen. Årsmedeltemperaturen i trakten är 7 °C. Den varmaste månaden är juli, då medeltemperaturen är 18&nbsp jogging belt with water bottle;°C waterproof 5s case, och den kallaste är december, med -3 °C. Genomsnittlig årsnederbörd är 995 millimeter. Den regnigaste månaden är februari, med i genomsnitt 134 mm nederbörd, och den torraste är augusti, med 32 mm nederbörd.

Megaclite (måne)

Megaclite er en af planeten Jupiters måner: Den blev opdaget 25. november 2000 af Scott S. Sheppard, David C. Jewitt, Yanga R. Fernández og Eugene A. Magnier waterproof 5s case. Lige efter opdagelsen fik den den midlertidige betegnelse S/2000 J 8, og efter det nummereringssystem som Galileo Galilei brugte på de galileiske måner hedder denne måne Jupiter XIX. Senere har den Internationale Astronomiske Union formelt besluttet at opkalde månen efter Megaclite, som i følge den græske mytologi var en af Zeus’ elskere.

Megaclite tilhører den såkaldte Pasiphae-gruppe where to buy a meat tenderizer, som i alt omfatter 13 Jupiter-måner, som alle har omtrent samme omløbsbane som månen Pasiphae. Megaclite er cirka 5,4 kilometer i diameter, og ud fra skøn over dens størrelse og masse anslås dens massefylde til omkring 2600 kilogram pr. kubikmeter: Dette tyder på at den primært består af klippemateriale, og i mindre omfang af is meat tenderizers for sale. Overfladen er temmelig mørk, og tilbagekaster kun 4 procent af det lys der falder på den.

Rescue of the SS Danmark

The rescue of the SS Danmark began on April 6, 1889, when the cargo ship, SS Missouri, came to the rescue of the sinking SS Danmark and saved all of the passengers and crew of the Danmark.

The Danmark was part of the Thingvalla Line and was a 3414-ton steamship. On this its last voyage, it carried 59 crew members and 665 passengers from Denmark, Sweden, and Norway who were on board for emigration to America. On March 20, 1889, the Danmark began its journey from Copenhagen to New York to deliver its passengers, most of whom were women who intended to go to the West to marry or seek work as domestics. There were also a large number of families with children. The bulk of the passengers were in the steerage, with only 26 passengers in cabins.

The Danmark had fought high winds and high seas from March 24, 1889. On April 4, 1889 touch football uniforms, the winds had become more violent, and the swells which the Danmark rode were mountainous. Most of the passengers became ill. By April 5, 1889, the Danmark was in terrible trouble and sinking, having survived high winds but with a severely damaged hull from a hole caused by her propeller shaft when it snapped. The ship was unable to make any headway because its engines were kept running so that the pumps could keep pumping the water to keep the ship from sinking. The Captain C.B. Knudsen had considered abandoning the ship but was concerned that the lifeboats would be overturned in the high seas.

On April 5, 1889, the SS Missouri came upon the disabled Danmark in bad weather and high seas. Fortunately, for the crew and the passengers of the Danmark, the Missouri happened upon the Danmark because it had taken on such a large cargo in London that she was ordered to proceed straight from London and Philadelphia and skip Swansea. The Missouri was one of four freighters built for the Atlantic Transport Line to carry cargo, cattle, and goods between London, Swansea, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. The Missouri was 2,845 tons and manned by a crew of 37. Because it was a freighter and had insufficient quarters for people and supplies, it could only accommodate an additional 20 people. Because its cargo hold was built to haul cattle, it had a large fresh water condenser capable of condensing 8,000 gallons of water per day. Upon seeing the distress flags of the Danmark, its Captain, Hamilton Murrell, immediately ordered his crew to set a course for the Danmark, and he steered as close as possible to the disabled steamship.

Because of the bad weather and his inability to accommodate the passengers, Captain Murrell decided not to risk the open sea transfer and instead offered to tow the Danmark to St. John. It took several hours to attach the tow lines because of the strong winds and heavy seas, but eventually the process was completed. The Missouri was able to the tow the Danmark but, because of the gale, it was hard going. When the storm increased in intensity, the Danmark was carried away and the wire bridle of the tow line was ripped away. However, the tow line held, and the Danmark did not go adrift. Because the Missouri was making no progress, and Captain Murrell had seen ice ahead, he decided to change course for the Azores. Three hours later, Captain Knudsen signaled that the Danmark was continuing to sink and would not make the trip to the Azores.

Captain Murrell ordered the tow line to be cut and ordered that the cargo be thrown overboard. The Danmark was told that the Missouri using its two life boats would begin the transfer of passengers and crew because the sea conditions would only allow the best of sailors to keep the lifeboats from crashing into the two ships. The second and third officers of the Missouri were ordered to begin the transfer, beginning with women and children first, in groups of 22-24. Because the first life boat contained babies and small children, Captain Murrell lowered coal baskets with ropes to pull the babies aboard. The larger children and other passengers were lifted onto the Missouri using ropes. As the weather slightly improved, Captain Murrell ordered the Danmark to use its seven lifeboats to bring over more passengers and whatever food supplies the Danmark had on board.

After almost five hours, all of the passengers had been taken aboard the Missouri. They were given hot tea and biscuits. Captain Murrell ordered the crew to abandon the Danmark because fog had begun to roll in, and he was afraid that they would lose sight of the Danmark waterproof 5s case. Captain Knudsen was the last to leave the Danmark because he was reluctant to abandon his ship. Three valuable dogs were killed because there was no room on the Missouri for them. By nightfall, the Danmark sank, leaving no trace of where it had been. Other sources disagree with this last sentence. Danish newspapers could on April 13 report: “London, 12. April. A depeche from Queenstown (Ireland) states that the steamer “City of Chester”, that has arrived from New York, on 8 April on pos. 4555N/3716W passed the steamer “Danmark” a drift with no one on board. On the afternoon the same day Reuter’s Bureau reported that “Danmark” was seen without any of its life boats and with the anchor chains hanging down.

The crew of the Missouri had worked for twelve hours without food or rest, and they freely gave up all their quarters to the passengers. Passengers were made beds in the wheelhouse and the engine room. Five women and a baby were given Captain Murrell’s cabin. Captain Murrell and his crew slept on the deck when they could. Because the provisions from the Missouri and from the Danmark only gave them enough food for three days, Captain Murrell knew that he had to make land as soon as possible. The Missouris engines were strained with the load, and, right before, St. Michaels was sighted, the Missouri had run out of food.

On April 10, 1889 glass water bottle uk, the Missouri reached the Azores. Initially, only Captain Murrell was allowed to leave the ship. After consultation with the Danish consul and the British Governor, it was agreed that 370 single men could be put ashore at St. Michaels until they could be transported to the United States. Capain Murrell was asked to take the remaining passengers to Philadelphia. Because the crew of the Missouri would have to undergo hardship conditions, Captain Murrell promised each crew member an extra month’s pay. Captain Murrell purchased more provisions which were taken on board, and the Missouri sailed for Philadelphia, arriving on May 2, 1889. Upon arrival, Captain Murrell and his crew were honored for their sacrifices and bravery. Captain Murrell’s employer ratified his promises to his crew for the extra wages and held him harmless for the loss and destruction of the Missouris cargo.