Zhao Yin

Zhao Yin (趙隱) (died 881), courtesy name Dayin (大隱), formally the Count of Tianshui (天水伯), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reigns of Emperor Yizong and Emperor Yizong’s son Emperor Xizong.

It is not known when Zhao Yin was born. His family was from Fengtian (奉天, in modern Xianyang, Shaanxi), a town that belonged to Jingzhao Municipality (京兆, i.e., the region of the Tang Dynasty capital Chang’an). Several of his male-line ancestors served as county magistrates during Tang. When Emperor Dezong was forced to flee to Fengtian in 783 after soldiers mutinied against him at Chang’an and supported the general Zhu Ci as their ruler instead, Zhu put Fengtian under siege, and Zhao Yin’s grandfather Zhao Zhi (趙植) led his household servants and guests in assisting Fengtian’s defense. As a result, after Zhu’s rebellion was suppressed still water glass bottle, Zhao Zhi entered the imperial government and eventually served as the military governor (Jiedushi) of Lingnan Circuit (嶺南, headquartered in modern Guangzhou, Guangdong) until his death running fuel belt reviews. Zhao Yin’s father Zhao Cunyue (趙存約) served on the staff of the former chancellor Li Jiang when Li served as the military governor of Shannan West Circuit (山南西道, headquartered in modern Hanzhong, Shaanxi), and when the soldiers mutinied against Li in 830, Zhao Cunyue tried to assist Li in fighting off the mutineers, but was killed by the mutineers with Li. Zhao Yin had at least one younger brother, Zhao Zhi (趙騭).

Zhao Yin, who was said to be filially pious, was greatly saddened by his father’s death, and he spent more than a decade thereafter studying near his father’s tomb, not submitting himself for the imperial examinations. During this time, the household was said to be poor, and he and Zhao Zhi, who had a loving brotherly relationship, farmed to support their mother. During the Huichang era (841-847) of Emperor Dezong’s great-great-grandson Emperor Wuzong, some friends of Zhao Cunyue’s became powerful officials, and they urged Zhao Yin to enter official service; only then did Zhao Yin do so, and he served as an assistant to various officials. In 849, by which time Emperor Wuzong’s uncle Emperor Xuānzong was emperor, Zhao passed the imperial examinations in the Jinshi class. (His brother Zhao Zhi would do so eventually as well.) He served at various posts as prefectural prefect, supervisory official, imperial attendant, and eventually the mayor of Henan Municipality (河南, i.e., the region of the Tang eastern capital Luoyang). He would later serve as deputy minister of census (戶部侍郎, Hubu Shilang) and then the deputy minister of defense (兵部侍郎, Bingbu Shilang), also serving as the director of the salt and iron monopolies.

In 872, by which time Zhao Yin was referred to as deputy minister of justice (刑部侍郎, Xingbu Shilang) and director of taxation, then-reigning Emperor Yizong (Emperor Xuānzong’s son) gave him the designation Tong Zhongshu Menxia Pingzhangshi (同中書門下平章事), making him a chancellor de facto, as well as deputy minister of census. He was later made Zhongshu Shilang (中書侍郎), the deputy head of the legislative bureau of government (中書省, Zhongshu Sheng), as well as the minister of rites (禮部尚書, Libu Shangshu), with the additional honorific title of Tejin (特進); he was also created the Count of Tianshui.

It was said that Zhao Yin was humble despite his high position waterproof bag for swimming, and after imperial gatherings, when he and Zhao Zhi would return home, they would change into civilian clothing and attend to their mother as if they were ordinary citizens. One birthday of Emperor Yizong’s, when Emperor Yizong held a feast at Ci’en Temple (慈恩寺), Zhao Yin accompanied his mother to the feast, and after the chancellors led the imperial officials in bowing to the emperor, he returned to his mother’s side to attend to her, an action that the other officials found to be a demonstration of filial piety. (Eventually, this would become precedent for the future chancellors Cui Yanzhao and Zhang Jun, whose mothers were also alive at the time that they would be chancellors, at imperial feasts.)

Emperor Yizong died in 873 and was succeeded by his young son Emperor Xizong. In 874, Zhao Yin was relieved of his chancellor position and sent out of Chang’an to serve as the military governor of Zhenhai Circuit (鎮海, headquartered in modern Zhenjiang, Jiangsu), still carrying the Tong Zhongshu Menxia Pingzhangshi title as an honorific title.

In 875, after some 69 officers of Zhenhai Circuit had battlefield accomplishments, Zhao Yin gave them honorific titles, but no increases in food or clothing stipends. This displeased them, who appealed the lack of increase, but their appeals were denied. They, thereafter, under the leadership of Wang Ying, rebelled and pillaged the region. As a result of what was considered mishandling of the situation by Zhao, he was relieved from his post and given the largely ceremonial post of minister of worship (太常卿, Taichang Qing). Later, early in the Guangming era (880-881), he was served as minister of civil service affairs (吏部尚書, Libu Shangshu). He died in 881 and was given posthumous honors by Emperor Xizong. (As, by that time, Emperor Xizong had fled Chang’an and was en route to Chengdu due to the attack by the agrarian rebel Huang Chao, who established his own state of Qi as its emperor, it appeared likely that Zhao had fled the capital with Emperor Xizong and died on the way.) His sons Zhao Guangfeng, Zhao Guangyi, and Zhao Guangyin would all eventually serve in the imperial government in the final years of Tang Dynasty and in the succeeding Later Liang, with Zhao Guangfeng serving as a chancellor for Later Liang; Zhao Guangyi would eventually serve as a chancellor for the secessionist state of Southern Han, while Zhao Guangyin would serve as a chancellor during the succeeding Later Tang.

Taha Jabir Alalwani

Taha Jabir Al-Alwani (طه جابر علواني), Ph.D why tenderize meat. (1935 – March 4, 2016) dirty football socks, was the President of Cordoba University in Ashburn, Virginia, United States. He also held the Imam Al-Shafi’i Chair in the Islamic Legal Theory at The Graduate School of Islamic and Social Sciences at Corboda University. Al-Alwani concentrated on the fields of Islamic legal theory, jurisprudence (fiqh), usul al-fiqh, Qur’anic sciences double glass water bottle, and general Islamic thought.

Al-Alwani was founder and former chairman of the Fiqh Council of North America.

Born in 1935 in Iraq, Al-Alwani received his high school diploma from Al-Azhar in 1953 and received his bachelor’s from the College of Shari’ah and Law at al-Azhar University in Cairo, Egypt in 1959. He continued at the college and earned a master’s degree in 1968 and a doctorate in Usul al-fiqh in 1973.

Following his undergraduate studies, Al-Alwani returned to Iraq and became a lieutenant in the Iraqi Military Reserves. He taught in the Military Academy of Iraq in Baghdad and also taught in the College of Islamic Studies where he was a professor for 6 years. While in Baghdad Al-Alwani studied with some of Iraq’s most prominent figures including: Sheikh Amjad al-Zahawi, Sheikh Qasim Al-Qaysi, (Grand Mufty of Iraq), Sheikh Mohammad Fu’ad Al-Aloosi, Sheikh Abdul ‘Aziz Salem Al-Samerai, Sheikh Mohammed Al-Qazilchi. Al-Alwani led Jummah (Friday Prayers) in the famous Mosque of Hajja Haseebah Al-Pachatchi from 1953 until 1969. He was forced to leave Iraq in 1969 due to his opposition of the Ba’ath party.

He returned to Al-Azhar in Egypt where he earned his PhD waterproof bag for swimming. After his PhD graduation he taught for 10 years at the Imam Muhammad ibn Sa’ood University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Al-Alwani then decided to immigrate to the United States in 1983 where he settled down in Northern Virginia for 23 years.

There he studied the history of several religious groups, specifically Jewish history and focused his attention on Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakay, who established the famous Jewish school in Haifa and founded the jurisprudence for Jewish minorities across the globe. Al-Alwani learned many of his lessons on Muslim integration into American society from Rabbi Yohanan. Al-Alwani’s openness to gaining knowledge from any source strengthened his benefit to the Islamic community in the United States.

During his time in the United States and in the Middle East, he worked extensively on interfaith projects. He has a vast network of scholars from different religions whom he still keeps up with as friends today. Al-Alwani holds the first chair for an Islamic scholar in the Washington Theological Consortium.

Al-Alwani has written and published over 30 books on a wide variety of Islamic issues including the “Ethics of Disagreement”. He pioneered many revolutionary original thoughts and ideas that subsequently lead to the establishment of new fields in Islamic Studies. He wrote about the Islamization of Knowledge, the need for Ijtihad, and is the founder of fiqh al-aqalliyyat (Muslim minority jurisprudence) which deals with problems Muslims face in countries where they are minorities and concentrates more on special and exceptional rulings for those special circumstances.

Al-Alwani is known for his vast work in the disciplines in Quranic studies. In his book, “Al-Tadabour” (exegesis, he discusses how to understand the Quran using the Quran itself as opposed to the direct reliance on “Mufassireen” (Quranic interpreters). He believes that due to the diversity in background and studies of these “mufassiroon” they have brought their biases and differences amongst Muslims through their interpretations. By removing the “middle man” Alwani believes that Muslims can find a better understanding of the Quran and Islam.

Al-Alwani has compared America to al-Andalus (Spain) where the Muslims risk deportation from America if they fail to become partners with other groups of society. They can achieve this by serving America and convincing American society that Islam and Muslims in America are an asset to society rather than a liability.

Al-Alwani has 3 children from a previous marriage, Dr. Zainab Alwani, Dr. Ruqaya Alwani and Ahmed Alwani all of which are active in their fathers methodology. He still plays an active role in his late wife’s Mona Abul-Fadl work on Muslim’s Women Studies and promotes her book, “Arab Regimes”.

He founded a library and think-tank in Cairo named Zahra and Mona Rewaq. He is the main supporter of the Arab Association of Women and Civilization Studies which was established by Dr. Mona Abul-Fadl. He enjoys listening to maqaam Iraqi and classical Arabic music (especially Umm Kalthoom). Since he was a child, he has played the musical instrument ‘Al-Qanoon’ (similar to the piano). He speaks Arabic, English, Persian, and Turkish.